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Qiang Liu

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Learn to Augment Network Simulators Towards Digital Network Twins

Nov 21, 2023
Yuru Zhang, Ming Zhao, Qiang Liu

Digital network twin (DNT) is a promising paradigm to replicate real-world cellular networks toward continual assessment, proactive management, and what-if analysis. Existing discussions have been focusing on using only deep learning techniques to build DNTs, which raises widespread concerns regarding their generalization, explainability, and transparency. In this paper, we explore an alternative approach to augment network simulators with context-aware neural agents. The main challenge lies in the non-trivial simulation-to-reality (sim-to-real) discrepancy between offline simulators and real-world networks. To solve the challenge, we propose a new learn-to-bridge algorithm to cost-efficiently bridge the sim-to-real discrepancy in two alternative stages. In the first stage, we select states to query performances in real-world networks by using newly-designed cost-aware Bayesian optimization. In the second stage, we train the neural agent to learn the state context and bridge the probabilistic discrepancy based on Bayesian neural networks (BNN). In addition, we build a small-scale end-to-end network testbed based on OpenAirInterface RAN and Core with USRP B210 and a smartphone, and replicate the network in NS-3. The evaluation results show that, our proposed solution substantially outperforms existing methods, with more than 92\% reduction in the sim-to-real discrepancy.

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Monkey: Image Resolution and Text Label Are Important Things for Large Multi-modal Models

Nov 11, 2023
Zhang Li, Biao Yang, Qiang Liu, Zhiyin Ma, Shuo Zhang, Jingxu Yang, Yabo Sun, Yuliang Liu, Xiang Bai

Large Multimodal Models have demonstrated impressive capabilities in understanding general vision-language tasks. However, due to the limitation of supported input resolution (e.g., 448 x 448) as well as the inexhaustive description of the training image-text pair, these models often encounter challenges when dealing with intricate scene understandings and narratives. Here we address the problem by proposing the Monkey. Our contributions are two-fold: 1) without pretraining from the start, our method can be built upon an existing vision encoder (e.g., vit-BigHuge) to effectively improve the input resolution capacity up to 896 x 1344 pixels; 2) we propose a multi-level description generation method, which automatically provides rich information that can guide model to learn contextual association between scenes and objects. Our extensive testing across more than 16 distinct datasets reveals that Monkey achieves consistently competitive performance over the existing LMMs on fundamental tasks, such as Image Captioning, General Visual Question Answering (VQA), and Document-oriented VQA. Models, interactive demo, and the source code are provided at the following

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ID Embedding as Subtle Features of Content and Structure for Multimodal Recommendation

Nov 10, 2023
Yuting Liu, Enneng Yang, Yizhou Dang, Guibing Guo, Qiang Liu, Yuliang Liang, Linying Jiang, Xingwei Wang

Multimodal recommendation aims to model user and item representations comprehensively with the involvement of multimedia content for effective recommendations. Existing research has shown that it is beneficial for recommendation performance to combine (user- and item-) ID embeddings with multimodal salient features, indicating the value of IDs. However, there is a lack of a thorough analysis of the ID embeddings in terms of feature semantics in the literature. In this paper, we revisit the value of ID embeddings for multimodal recommendation and conduct a thorough study regarding its semantics, which we recognize as subtle features of content and structures. Then, we propose a novel recommendation model by incorporating ID embeddings to enhance the semantic features of both content and structures. Specifically, we put forward a hierarchical attention mechanism to incorporate ID embeddings in modality fusing, coupled with contrastive learning, to enhance content representations. Meanwhile, we propose a lightweight graph convolutional network for each modality to amalgamate neighborhood and ID embeddings for improving structural representations. Finally, the content and structure representations are combined to form the ultimate item embedding for recommendation. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets (Baby, Sports, and Clothing) demonstrate the superiority of our method over state-of-the-art multimodal recommendation methods and the effectiveness of fine-grained ID embeddings.

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A Computational Framework for Solving Wasserstein Lagrangian Flows

Oct 17, 2023
Kirill Neklyudov, Rob Brekelmans, Alexander Tong, Lazar Atanackovic, Qiang Liu, Alireza Makhzani

The dynamical formulation of the optimal transport can be extended through various choices of the underlying geometry ($\textit{kinetic energy}$), and the regularization of density paths ($\textit{potential energy}$). These combinations yield different variational problems ($\textit{Lagrangians}$), encompassing many variations of the optimal transport problem such as the Schr\"odinger bridge, unbalanced optimal transport, and optimal transport with physical constraints, among others. In general, the optimal density path is unknown, and solving these variational problems can be computationally challenging. Leveraging the dual formulation of the Lagrangians, we propose a novel deep learning based framework approaching all of these problems from a unified perspective. Our method does not require simulating or backpropagating through the trajectories of the learned dynamics, and does not need access to optimal couplings. We showcase the versatility of the proposed framework by outperforming previous approaches for the single-cell trajectory inference, where incorporating prior knowledge into the dynamics is crucial for correct predictions.

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EX-FEVER: A Dataset for Multi-hop Explainable Fact Verification

Oct 15, 2023
Huanhuan Ma, Weizhi Xu, Yifan Wei, Liuji Chen, Liang Wang, Qiang Liu, Shu Wu, Liang Wang

Fact verification aims to automatically probe the veracity of a claim based on several pieces of evidence. Existing works are always engaging in the accuracy improvement, let alone the explainability, a critical capability of fact verification system. Constructing an explainable fact verification system in a complex multi-hop scenario is consistently impeded by the absence of a relevant high-quality dataset. Previous dataset either suffer from excessive simplification or fail to incorporate essential considerations for explainability. To address this, we present EX-FEVER, a pioneering dataset for multi-hop explainable fact verification. With over 60,000 claims involving 2-hop and 3-hop reasoning, each is created by summarizing and modifying information from hyperlinked Wikipedia documents. Each instance is accompanied by a veracity label and an explanation that outlines the reasoning path supporting the veracity classification. Additionally, we demonstrate a novel baseline system on our EX-FEVER dataset, showcasing document retrieval, explanation generation, and claim verification and observe that existing fact verification models trained on previous datasets struggle to perform well on our dataset. Furthermore, we highlight the potential of utilizing Large Language Models in the fact verification task. We hope our dataset could make a significant contribution by providing ample opportunities to explore the integration of natural language explanations in the domain of fact verification.

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Lion Secretly Solves Constrained Optimization: As Lyapunov Predicts

Oct 12, 2023
Lizhang Chen, Bo Liu, Kaizhao Liang, Qiang Liu

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Lion (Evolved Sign Momentum), a new optimizer discovered through program search, has shown promising results in training large AI models. It performs comparably or favorably to AdamW but with greater memory efficiency. As we can expect from the results of a random search program, Lion incorporates elements from several existing algorithms, including signed momentum, decoupled weight decay, Polak, and Nesterov momentum, but does not fit into any existing category of theoretically grounded optimizers. Thus, even though Lion appears to perform well as a general-purpose optimizer for a wide range of tasks, its theoretical basis remains uncertain. This lack of theoretical clarity limits opportunities to further enhance and expand Lion's efficacy. This work aims to demystify Lion. Based on both continuous-time and discrete-time analysis, we demonstrate that Lion is a theoretically novel and principled approach for minimizing a general loss function $f(x)$ while enforcing a bound constraint $\|x\|_\infty \leq 1/\lambda$. Lion achieves this through the incorporation of decoupled weight decay, where $\lambda$ represents the weight decay coefficient. Our analysis is made possible by the development of a new Lyapunov function for the Lion updates. It applies to a broader family of Lion-$\kappa$ algorithms, where the $\text{sign}(\cdot)$ operator in Lion is replaced by the subgradient of a convex function $\kappa$, leading to the solution of a general composite optimization problem of $\min_x f(x) + \kappa^*(x)$. Our findings provide valuable insights into the dynamics of Lion and pave the way for further improvements and extensions of Lion-related algorithms.

* 26 pages, 6 figures 
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GSLB: The Graph Structure Learning Benchmark

Oct 08, 2023
Zhixun Li, Liang Wang, Xin Sun, Yifan Luo, Yanqiao Zhu, Dingshuo Chen, Yingtao Luo, Xiangxin Zhou, Qiang Liu, Shu Wu, Liang Wang, Jeffrey Xu Yu

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Graph Structure Learning (GSL) has recently garnered considerable attention due to its ability to optimize both the parameters of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) and the computation graph structure simultaneously. Despite the proliferation of GSL methods developed in recent years, there is no standard experimental setting or fair comparison for performance evaluation, which creates a great obstacle to understanding the progress in this field. To fill this gap, we systematically analyze the performance of GSL in different scenarios and develop a comprehensive Graph Structure Learning Benchmark (GSLB) curated from 20 diverse graph datasets and 16 distinct GSL algorithms. Specifically, GSLB systematically investigates the characteristics of GSL in terms of three dimensions: effectiveness, robustness, and complexity. We comprehensively evaluate state-of-the-art GSL algorithms in node- and graph-level tasks, and analyze their performance in robust learning and model complexity. Further, to facilitate reproducible research, we have developed an easy-to-use library for training, evaluating, and visualizing different GSL methods. Empirical results of our extensive experiments demonstrate the ability of GSL and reveal its potential benefits on various downstream tasks, offering insights and opportunities for future research. The code of GSLB is available at:

* Accepted by NeurIPS Datasets and Benchmarks Track 2023 
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AdaMap: High-Scalable Real-Time Cooperative Perception at the Edge

Oct 03, 2023
Qiang Liu, Yongjie Xue, Yuru Zhang, Dawei Chen, Kyungtae Han

Cooperative perception is the key approach to augment the perception of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) toward safe autonomous driving. However, it is challenging to achieve real-time perception sharing for hundreds of CAVs in large-scale deployment scenarios. In this paper, we propose AdaMap, a new high-scalable real-time cooperative perception system, which achieves assured percentile end-to-end latency under time-varying network dynamics. To achieve AdaMap, we design a tightly coupled data plane and control plane. In the data plane, we design a new hybrid localization module to dynamically switch between object detection and tracking, and a novel point cloud representation module to adaptively compress and reconstruct the point cloud of detected objects. In the control plane, we design a new graph-based object selection method to un-select excessive multi-viewed point clouds of objects, and a novel approximated gradient descent algorithm to optimize the representation of point clouds. We implement AdaMap on an emulation platform, including realistic vehicle and server computation and a simulated 5G network, under a 150-CAV trace collected from the CARLA simulator. The evaluation results show that, AdaMap reduces up to 49x average transmission data size at the cost of 0.37 reconstruction loss, as compared to state-of-the-art solutions, which verifies its high scalability, adaptability, and computation efficiency.

* Accepted by IEEE/ACM SEC 2023 
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Uncovering Neural Scaling Laws in Molecular Representation Learning

Sep 28, 2023
Dingshuo Chen, Yanqiao Zhu, Jieyu Zhang, Yuanqi Du, Zhixun Li, Qiang Liu, Shu Wu, Liang Wang

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Molecular Representation Learning (MRL) has emerged as a powerful tool for drug and materials discovery in a variety of tasks such as virtual screening and inverse design. While there has been a surge of interest in advancing model-centric techniques, the influence of both data quantity and quality on molecular representations is not yet clearly understood within this field. In this paper, we delve into the neural scaling behaviors of MRL from a data-centric viewpoint, examining four key dimensions: (1) data modalities, (2) dataset splitting, (3) the role of pre-training, and (4) model capacity. Our empirical studies confirm a consistent power-law relationship between data volume and MRL performance across these dimensions. Additionally, through detailed analysis, we identify potential avenues for improving learning efficiency. To challenge these scaling laws, we adapt seven popular data pruning strategies to molecular data and benchmark their performance. Our findings underline the importance of data-centric MRL and highlight possible directions for future research.

* 23 pages; accepted to NeurIPS 2023 Datasets and Benchmarks 
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