Large language models (LLMs) have revolutionized the field of artificial intelligence, enabling natural language processing tasks that were previously thought to be exclusive to humans. In this work, we introduce Qwen, the first installment of our large language model series. Qwen is a comprehensive language model series that encompasses distinct models with varying parameter counts. It includes Qwen, the base pretrained language models, and Qwen-Chat, the chat models finetuned with human alignment techniques. The base language models consistently demonstrate superior performance across a multitude of downstream tasks, and the chat models, particularly those trained using Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF), are highly competitive. The chat models possess advanced tool-use and planning capabilities for creating agent applications, showcasing impressive performance even when compared to bigger models on complex tasks like utilizing a code interpreter. Furthermore, we have developed coding-specialized models, Code-Qwen and Code-Qwen-Chat, as well as mathematics-focused models, Math-Qwen-Chat, which are built upon base language models. These models demonstrate significantly improved performance in comparison with open-source models, and slightly fall behind the proprietary models.
Large vision-language models (LVLMs) have recently witnessed rapid advancements, exhibiting a remarkable capacity for perceiving, understanding, and processing visual information by connecting visual receptor with large language models (LLMs). However, current assessments mainly focus on recognizing and reasoning abilities, lacking direct evaluation of conversational skills and neglecting visual storytelling abilities. In this paper, we propose an evaluation method that uses strong LLMs as judges to comprehensively evaluate the various abilities of LVLMs. Firstly, we construct a comprehensive visual dialogue dataset TouchStone, consisting of open-world images and questions, covering five major categories of abilities and 27 subtasks. This dataset not only covers fundamental recognition and comprehension but also extends to literary creation. Secondly, by integrating detailed image annotations we effectively transform the multimodal input content into a form understandable by LLMs. This enables us to employ advanced LLMs for directly evaluating the quality of the multimodal dialogue without requiring human intervention. Through validation, we demonstrate that powerful LVLMs, such as GPT-4, can effectively score dialogue quality by leveraging their textual capabilities alone, aligning with human preferences. We hope our work can serve as a touchstone for LVLMs' evaluation and pave the way for building stronger LVLMs. The evaluation code is available at https://github.com/OFA-Sys/TouchStone.
Domain generalization (DG) seeks to learn robust models that generalize well under unknown distribution shifts. As a critical aspect of DG, optimizer selection has not been explored in depth. Currently, most DG methods follow the widely used benchmark, DomainBed, and utilize Adam as the default optimizer for all datasets. However, we reveal that Adam is not necessarily the optimal choice for the majority of current DG methods and datasets. Based on the perspective of loss landscape flatness, we propose a novel approach, Flatness-Aware Minimization for Domain Generalization (FAD), which can efficiently optimize both zeroth-order and first-order flatness simultaneously for DG. We provide theoretical analyses of the FAD's out-of-distribution (OOD) generalization error and convergence. Our experimental results demonstrate the superiority of FAD on various DG datasets. Additionally, we confirm that FAD is capable of discovering flatter optima in comparison to other zeroth-order and first-order flatness-aware optimization methods.
Competitions for shareable and limited resources have long been studied with strategic agents. In reality, agents often have to learn and maximize the rewards of the resources at the same time. To design an individualized competing policy, we model the competition between agents in a novel multi-player multi-armed bandit (MPMAB) setting where players are selfish and aim to maximize their own rewards. In addition, when several players pull the same arm, we assume that these players averagely share the arms' rewards by expectation. Under this setting, we first analyze the Nash equilibrium when arms' rewards are known. Subsequently, we propose a novel SelfishMPMAB with Averaging Allocation (SMAA) approach based on the equilibrium. We theoretically demonstrate that SMAA could achieve a good regret guarantee for each player when all players follow the algorithm. Additionally, we establish that no single selfish player can significantly increase their rewards through deviation, nor can they detrimentally affect other players' rewards without incurring substantial losses for themselves. We finally validate the effectiveness of the method in extensive synthetic experiments.
To ensure the out-of-distribution (OOD) generalization performance, traditional domain generalization (DG) methods resort to training on data from multiple sources with different underlying distributions. And the success of those DG methods largely depends on the fact that there are diverse training distributions. However, it usually needs great efforts to obtain enough heterogeneous data due to the high expenses, privacy issues or the scarcity of data. Thus an interesting yet seldom investigated problem arises: how to improve the OOD generalization performance when the perceived heterogeneity is limited. In this paper, we instantiate a new framework called few-domain generalization (FDG), which aims to learn a generalizable model from very few domains of novel tasks with the knowledge acquired from previous learning experiences on base tasks. Moreover, we propose a Meta Adaptive Task Sampling (MATS) procedure to differentiate base tasks according to their semantic and domain-shift similarity to the novel task. Empirically, we show that the newly introduced FDG framework can substantially improve the OOD generalization performance on the novel task and further combining MATS with episodic training could outperform several state-of-the-art DG baselines on widely used benchmarks like PACS and DomainNet.
Domain generalization aims to solve the challenge of Out-of-Distribution (OOD) generalization by leveraging common knowledge learned from multiple training domains to generalize to unseen test domains. To accurately evaluate the OOD generalization ability, it is necessary to ensure that test data information is unavailable. However, the current domain generalization protocol may still have potential test data information leakage. This paper examines the potential risks of test data information leakage in two aspects of the current protocol: pretraining on ImageNet and oracle model selection. We propose that training from scratch and using multiple test domains would result in a more precise evaluation of OOD generalization ability. We also rerun the algorithms with the modified protocol and introduce a new leaderboard to encourage future research in domain generalization with a fairer comparison.
Massive amounts of data are the foundation of data-driven recommendation models. As an inherent nature of big data, data heterogeneity widely exists in real-world recommendation systems. It reflects the differences in the properties among sub-populations. Ignoring the heterogeneity in recommendation data could limit the performance of recommendation models, hurt the sub-populational robustness, and make the models misled by biases. However, data heterogeneity has not attracted substantial attention in the recommendation community. Therefore, it inspires us to adequately explore and exploit heterogeneity for solving the above problems and assisting data analysis. In this work, we focus on exploring two representative categories of heterogeneity in recommendation data that is the heterogeneity of prediction mechanism and covariate distribution and propose an algorithm that explores the heterogeneity through a bilevel clustering method. Furthermore, the uncovered heterogeneity is exploited for two purposes in recommendation scenarios which are prediction with multiple sub-models and supporting debias. Extensive experiments on real-world data validate the existence of heterogeneity in recommendation data and the effectiveness of exploring and exploiting data heterogeneity in recommendation.
Recently, flat minima are proven to be effective for improving generalization and sharpness-aware minimization (SAM) achieves state-of-the-art performance. Yet the current definition of flatness discussed in SAM and its follow-ups are limited to the zeroth-order flatness (i.e., the worst-case loss within a perturbation radius). We show that the zeroth-order flatness can be insufficient to discriminate minima with low generalization error from those with high generalization error both when there is a single minimum or multiple minima within the given perturbation radius. Thus we present first-order flatness, a stronger measure of flatness focusing on the maximal gradient norm within a perturbation radius which bounds both the maximal eigenvalue of Hessian at local minima and the regularization function of SAM. We also present a novel training procedure named Gradient norm Aware Minimization (GAM) to seek minima with uniformly small curvature across all directions. Experimental results show that GAM improves the generalization of models trained with current optimizers such as SGD and AdamW on various datasets and networks. Furthermore, we show that GAM can help SAM find flatter minima and achieve better generalization.
The problem of covariate-shift generalization has attracted intensive research attention. Previous stable learning algorithms employ sample reweighting schemes to decorrelate the covariates when there is no explicit domain information about training data. However, with finite samples, it is difficult to achieve the desirable weights that ensure perfect independence to get rid of the unstable variables. Besides, decorrelating within stable variables may bring about high variance of learned models because of the over-reduced effective sample size. A tremendous sample size is required for these algorithms to work. In this paper, with theoretical justification, we propose SVI (Sparse Variable Independence) for the covariate-shift generalization problem. We introduce sparsity constraint to compensate for the imperfectness of sample reweighting under the finite-sample setting in previous methods. Furthermore, we organically combine independence-based sample reweighting and sparsity-based variable selection in an iterative way to avoid decorrelating within stable variables, increasing the effective sample size to alleviate variance inflation. Experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the improvement of covariate-shift generalization performance brought by SVI.