Federated learning (FL) has been widely adopted for collaborative training on decentralized data. However, it faces the challenges of data, system, and model heterogeneity. This has inspired the emergence of model-heterogeneous personalized federated learning (MHPFL). Nevertheless, the problem of ensuring data and model privacy, while achieving good model performance and keeping communication and computation costs low remains open in MHPFL. To address this problem, we propose a model-heterogeneous personalized Federated learning with Mixture of Experts (pFedMoE) method. It assigns a shared homogeneous small feature extractor and a local gating network for each client's local heterogeneous large model. Firstly, during local training, the local heterogeneous model's feature extractor acts as a local expert for personalized feature (representation) extraction, while the shared homogeneous small feature extractor serves as a global expert for generalized feature extraction. The local gating network produces personalized weights for extracted representations from both experts on each data sample. The three models form a local heterogeneous MoE. The weighted mixed representation fuses generalized and personalized features and is processed by the local heterogeneous large model's header with personalized prediction information. The MoE and prediction header are updated simultaneously. Secondly, the trained local homogeneous small feature extractors are sent to the server for cross-client information fusion via aggregation. Overall, pFedMoE enhances local model personalization at a fine-grained data level, while supporting model heterogeneity.
Federated learning (FL) is widely employed for collaborative training on decentralized data but faces challenges like data, system, and model heterogeneity. This prompted the emergency of model-heterogeneous personalized federated learning (MHPFL). However, concerns persist regarding data and model privacy, model performance, communication, and computational costs in current MHPFL methods. To tackle these concerns, we propose a novel model-heterogeneous personalized Federated learning algorithm (FedMoE) with the Mixture of Experts (MoE), renowned for enhancing large language models (LLMs). It assigns a shared homogeneous small feature extractor and a local gating network for each client's local heterogeneous large model. (1) During local training, the local heterogeneous model's feature extractor acts as a local expert for personalized feature (representation) extraction, while the shared homogeneous small feature extractor serves as a global expert for generalized feature extraction. The local gating network produces personalized weights for extracted representations from both experts on each data sample. The three models form a local heterogeneous MoE. The weighted mixed representation fuses global generalized and local personalized features and is processed by the local heterogeneous large model's header with personalized prediction information for output. The MoE and prediction header are updated synchronously. (2) The trained local homogeneous small feature extractors are sent to the server for cross-client information fusion via aggregation. Briefly, FedMoE first enhances local model personalization at a fine-grained data level while supporting model heterogeneity.
Quantum computing networks enable scalable collaboration and secure information exchange among multiple classical and quantum computing nodes while executing large-scale generative AI computation tasks and advanced quantum algorithms. Quantum computing networks overcome limitations such as the number of qubits and coherence time of entangled pairs and offer advantages for generative AI infrastructure, including enhanced noise reduction through distributed processing and improved scalability by connecting multiple quantum devices. However, efficient resource allocation in quantum computing networks is a critical challenge due to factors including qubit variability and network complexity. In this article, we propose an intelligent resource allocation framework for quantum computing networks to improve network scalability with minimized resource costs. To achieve scalability in quantum computing networks, we formulate the resource allocation problem as stochastic programming, accounting for the uncertain fidelities of qubits and entangled pairs. Furthermore, we introduce state-of-the-art reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms, from generative learning to quantum machine learning for optimal quantum resource allocation to resolve the proposed stochastic resource allocation problem efficiently. Finally, we optimize the resource allocation in heterogeneous quantum computing networks supporting quantum generative learning applications and propose a multi-agent RL-based algorithm to learn the optimal resource allocation policies without prior knowledge.
Federated learning (FL) enables multiple data owners (a.k.a. FL clients) to collaboratively train machine learning models without disclosing sensitive private data. Existing FL research mostly focuses on the monopoly scenario in which a single FL server selects a subset of FL clients to update their local models in each round of training. In practice, there can be multiple FL servers simultaneously trying to select clients from the same pool. In this paper, we propose a first-of-its-kind Fairness-aware Federated Job Scheduling (FairFedJS) approach to bridge this gap. Based on Lyapunov optimization, it ensures fair allocation of high-demand FL client datasets to FL jobs in need of them, by jointly considering the current demand and the job payment bids, in order to prevent prolonged waiting. Extensive experiments comparing FairFedJS against four state-of-the-art approaches on two datasets demonstrate its significant advantages. It outperforms the best baseline by 31.9% and 1.0% on average in terms of scheduling fairness and convergence time, respectively, while achieving comparable test accuracy.
Federated learning (FL) provides a privacy-preserving approach for collaborative training of machine learning models. Given the potential data heterogeneity, it is crucial to select appropriate collaborators for each FL participant (FL-PT) based on data complementarity. Recent studies have addressed this challenge. Similarly, it is imperative to consider the inter-individual relationships among FL-PTs where some FL-PTs engage in competition. Although FL literature has acknowledged the significance of this scenario, practical methods for establishing FL ecosystems remain largely unexplored. In this paper, we extend a principle from the balance theory, namely ``the friend of my enemy is my enemy'', to ensure the absence of conflicting interests within an FL ecosystem. The extended principle and the resulting problem are formulated via graph theory and integer linear programming. A polynomial-time algorithm is proposed to determine the collaborators of each FL-PT. The solution guarantees high scalability, allowing even competing FL-PTs to smoothly join the ecosystem without conflict of interest. The proposed framework jointly considers competition and data heterogeneity. Extensive experiments on real-world and synthetic data demonstrate its efficacy compared to five alternative approaches, and its ability to establish efficient collaboration networks among FL-PTs.
Federated learning (FL) is a privacy-preserving collaboratively machine learning paradigm. Traditional FL requires all data owners (a.k.a. FL clients) to train the same local model. This design is not well-suited for scenarios involving data and/or system heterogeneity. Model-Heterogeneous Personalized FL (MHPFL) has emerged to address this challenge. Existing MHPFL approaches often rely on having a public dataset with the same nature of the learning task, or incur high computation and communication costs. To address these limitations, we propose the Federated Semantic Similarity Aggregation (FedSSA) approach, which splits each client's model into a heterogeneous (structure-different) feature extractor and a homogeneous (structure-same) classification header. It performs local-to-global knowledge transfer via semantic similarity-based header parameter aggregation. In addition, global-to-local knowledge transfer is achieved via an adaptive parameter stabilization strategy which fuses the seen-class parameters of historical local headers with that of the latest global header for each client. In this way, FedSSA does not rely on public datasets, while only requiring partial header parameter transmission (thereby saving costs). Theoretical analysis proves the convergence of FedSSA. Extensive experiments demonstrate that FedSSA achieves up to $3.62 \times\%$ higher accuracy, $15.54$ times higher communication efficiency, and $15.52 \times$ higher computational efficiency compared to 7 state-of-the-art MHPFL baselines.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2311.06879
Federated learning (FL) has emerged as a promising collaborative and secure paradigm for training a model from decentralized data without compromising privacy. Group fairness and client fairness are two dimensions of fairness that are important for FL. Standard FL can result in disproportionate disadvantages for certain clients, and it still faces the challenge of treating different groups equitably in a population. The problem of privately training fair FL models without compromising the generalization capability of disadvantaged clients remains open. In this paper, we propose a method, called mFairFL, to address this problem and achieve group fairness and client fairness simultaneously. mFairFL leverages differential multipliers to construct an optimization objective for empirical risk minimization with fairness constraints. Before aggregating locally trained models, it first detects conflicts among their gradients, and then iteratively curates the direction and magnitude of gradients to mitigate these conflicts. Theoretical analysis proves mFairFL facilitates the fairness in model development. The experimental evaluations based on three benchmark datasets show significant advantages of mFairFL compared to seven state-of-the-art baselines.
* Accepted by the Thirty-Eighth AAAI Conference on Artificial
Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the field of image search for e-commerce applications. Traditional image-to-image retrieval models, which focus solely on image details such as texture, tend to overlook useful semantic information contained within the images. As a result, the retrieved products might possess similar image details, but fail to fulfil the user's search goals. Moreover, the use of image-to-image retrieval models for products containing multiple images results in significant online product feature storage overhead and complex mapping implementations. In this paper, we report the design and deployment of the proposed Multi-modal Item Embedding Model (MIEM) to address these limitations. It is capable of utilizing both textual information and multiple images about a product to construct meaningful product features. By leveraging semantic information from images, MIEM effectively supplements the image search process, improving the overall accuracy of retrieval results. MIEM has become an integral part of the Shopee image search platform. Since its deployment in March 2023, it has achieved a remarkable 9.90% increase in terms of clicks per user and a 4.23% boost in terms of orders per user for the image search feature on the Shopee e-commerce platform.
Auction-based Federated Learning (AFL) has emerged as an important research field in recent years. The prevailing strategies for FL model users (MUs) assume that the entire team of the required data owners (DOs) for an FL task must be assembled before training can commence. In practice, an MU can trigger the FL training process multiple times. DOs can thus be gradually recruited over multiple FL model training sessions. Existing bidding strategies for AFL MUs are not designed to handle such scenarios. Therefore, the problem of multi-session AFL remains open. To address this problem, we propose the Multi-session Budget Optimization Strategy for forward Auction-based Federated Learning (MultiBOS-AFL). Based on hierarchical reinforcement learning, MultiBOS-AFL jointly optimizes inter-session budget pacing and intra-session bidding for AFL MUs, with the objective of maximizing the total utility. Extensive experiments on six benchmark datasets show that it significantly outperforms seven state-of-the-art approaches. On average, MultiBOS-AFL achieves 12.28% higher utility, 14.52% more data acquired through auctions for a given budget, and 1.23% higher test accuracy achieved by the resulting FL model compared to the best baseline. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first budget optimization decision support method with budget pacing capability designed for MUs in multi-session forward auction-based federated learning