We study the problem of preferential Bayesian optimization (BO), where we aim to optimize a black-box function with only preference feedback over a pair of candidate solutions. Inspired by the likelihood ratio idea, we construct a confidence set of the black-box function using only the preference feedback. An optimistic algorithm with an efficient computational method is then developed to solve the problem, which enjoys an information-theoretic bound on the cumulative regret, a first-of-its-kind for preferential BO. This bound further allows us to design a scheme to report an estimated best solution, with a guaranteed convergence rate. Experimental results on sampled instances from Gaussian processes, standard test functions, and a thermal comfort optimization problem all show that our method stably achieves better or competitive performance as compared to the existing state-of-the-art heuristics, which, however, do not have theoretical guarantees on regret bounds or convergence.
Sentiment analysis is rapidly advancing by utilizing various data modalities (e.g., text, image). However, most previous works relied on superficial information, neglecting the incorporation of contextual world knowledge (e.g., background information derived from but beyond the given image and text pairs) and thereby restricting their ability to achieve better multimodal sentiment analysis. In this paper, we proposed a plug-in framework named WisdoM, designed to leverage contextual world knowledge induced from the large vision-language models (LVLMs) for enhanced multimodal sentiment analysis. WisdoM utilizes a LVLM to comprehensively analyze both images and corresponding sentences, simultaneously generating pertinent context. To reduce the noise in the context, we also introduce a training-free Contextual Fusion mechanism. Experimental results across diverse granularities of multimodal sentiment analysis tasks consistently demonstrate that our approach has substantial improvements (brings an average +1.89 F1 score among five advanced methods) over several state-of-the-art methods. Code will be released.
CNNs and Self attention have achieved great success in multimedia applications for dynamic association learning of self-attention and convolution in image restoration. However, CNNs have at least two shortcomings: 1) limited receptive field; 2) static weight of sliding window at inference, unable to cope with the content diversity.In view of the advantages and disadvantages of CNNs and Self attention, this paper proposes an association learning method to utilize the advantages and suppress their shortcomings, so as to achieve high-quality and efficient inpainting. We regard rain distribution reflects the degradation location and degree, in addition to the rain distribution prediction. Thus, we propose to refine background textures with the predicted degradation prior in an association learning manner. As a result, we accomplish image deraining by associating rain streak removal and background recovery, where an image deraining network and a background recovery network are designed for two subtasks. The key part of association learning is a novel multi-input attention module. It generates the degradation prior and produces the degradation mask according to the predicted rainy distribution. Benefited from the global correlation calculation of SA, MAM can extract the informative complementary components from the rainy input with the degradation mask, and then help accurate texture restoration. Meanwhile, SA tends to aggregate feature maps with self-attention importance, but convolution diversifies them to focus on the local textures. A hybrid fusion network involves one residual Transformer branch and one encoder-decoder branch. The former takes a few learnable tokens as input and stacks multi-head attention and feed-forward networks to encode global features of the image. The latter, conversely, leverages the multi-scale encoder-decoder to represent contexture knowledge.
* in Chinese language, Journal of Image and Graphics. arXiv admin note:
substantial text overlap with arXiv:2207.10455
While most research into speech synthesis has focused on synthesizing high-quality speech for in-dataset speakers, an equally essential yet unsolved problem is synthesizing speech for unseen speakers who are out-of-dataset with limited reference data, i.e., speaker adaptive speech synthesis. Many studies have proposed zero-shot speaker adaptive text-to-speech and voice conversion approaches aimed at this task. However, most current approaches suffer from the degradation of naturalness and speaker similarity when synthesizing speech for unseen speakers (i.e., speakers not in the training dataset) due to the poor generalizability of the model in out-of-distribution data. To address this problem, we propose GZS-TV, a generalizable zero-shot speaker adaptive text-to-speech and voice conversion model. GZS-TV introduces disentangled representation learning for both speaker embedding extraction and timbre transformation to improve model generalization and leverages the representation learning capability of the variational autoencoder to enhance the speaker encoder. Our experiments demonstrate that GZS-TV reduces performance degradation on unseen speakers and outperforms all baseline models in multiple datasets.
* 5 pages, 3 figures. Accepted by Interspeech 2023, Oral
As an emerging approach, deep learning plays an increasingly influential role in channel modeling. Traditional ray tracing (RT) methods of channel modeling tend to be inefficient and expensive. In this paper, we present a super-resolution (SR) model for channel characteristics. Residual connection and attention mechanism are applied to this convolutional neural network (CNN) model. Experiments prove that the proposed model can reduce the noise interference generated in the SR process and solve the problem of low efficiency of RT. The mean absolute error of our channel SR model on the PL achieves the effect of 2.82 dB with scale factor 2, the same accuracy as RT took only 52\% of the time in theory. Compared with vision transformer (ViT), the proposed model also demonstrates less running time and computing cost in SR of channel characteristics.
Self-supervised facial representation has recently attracted increasing attention due to its ability to perform face understanding without relying on large-scale annotated datasets heavily. However, analytically, current contrastive-based self-supervised learning still performs unsatisfactorily for learning facial representation. More specifically, existing contrastive learning (CL) tends to learn pose-invariant features that cannot depict the pose details of faces, compromising the learning performance. To conquer the above limitation of CL, we propose a novel Pose-disentangled Contrastive Learning (PCL) method for general self-supervised facial representation. Our PCL first devises a pose-disentangled decoder (PDD) with a delicately designed orthogonalizing regulation, which disentangles the pose-related features from the face-aware features; therefore, pose-related and other pose-unrelated facial information could be performed in individual subnetworks and do not affect each other's training. Furthermore, we introduce a pose-related contrastive learning scheme that learns pose-related information based on data augmentation of the same image, which would deliver more effective face-aware representation for various downstream tasks. We conducted a comprehensive linear evaluation on three challenging downstream facial understanding tasks, i.e., facial expression recognition, face recognition, and AU detection. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms cutting-edge contrastive and other self-supervised learning methods with a great margin.
We propose an end-to-end lecture video generation system that can generate realistic and complete lecture videos directly from annotated slides, instructor's reference voice and instructor's reference portrait video. Our system is primarily composed of a speech synthesis module with few-shot speaker adaptation and an adversarial learning-based talking-head generation module. It is capable of not only reducing instructors' workload but also changing the language and accent which can help the students follow the lecture more easily and enable a wider dissemination of lecture contents. Our experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms other current approaches in terms of authenticity, naturalness and accuracy. Here is a video demonstration of how our system works, and the outcomes of the evaluation and comparison: https://youtu.be/cY6TYkI0cog.
Dynamic facial expression recognition (FER) databases provide important data support for affective computing and applications. However, most FER databases are annotated with several basic mutually exclusive emotional categories and contain only one modality, e.g., videos. The monotonous labels and modality cannot accurately imitate human emotions and fulfill applications in the real world. In this paper, we propose MAFW, a large-scale multi-modal compound affective database with 10,045 video-audio clips in the wild. Each clip is annotated with a compound emotional category and a couple of sentences that describe the subjects' affective behaviors in the clip. For the compound emotion annotation, each clip is categorized into one or more of the 11 widely-used emotions, i.e., anger, disgust, fear, happiness, neutral, sadness, surprise, contempt, anxiety, helplessness, and disappointment. To ensure high quality of the labels, we filter out the unreliable annotations by an Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm, and then obtain 11 single-label emotion categories and 32 multi-label emotion categories. To the best of our knowledge, MAFW is the first in-the-wild multi-modal database annotated with compound emotion annotations and emotion-related captions. Additionally, we also propose a novel Transformer-based expression snippet feature learning method to recognize the compound emotions leveraging the expression-change relations among different emotions and modalities. Extensive experiments on MAFW database show the advantages of the proposed method over other state-of-the-art methods for both uni- and multi-modal FER. Our MAFW database is publicly available from https://mafw-database.github.io/MAFW.
The recent success of Transformer has provided a new direction to various visual understanding tasks, including video-based facial expression recognition (FER). By modeling visual relations effectively, Transformer has shown its power for describing complicated patterns. However, Transformer still performs unsatisfactorily to notice subtle facial expression movements, because the expression movements of many videos can be too small to extract meaningful spatial-temporal relations and achieve robust performance. To this end, we propose to decompose each video into a series of expression snippets, each of which contains a small number of facial movements, and attempt to augment the Transformer's ability for modeling intra-snippet and inter-snippet visual relations, respectively, obtaining the Expression snippet Transformer (EST). In particular, for intra-snippet modeling, we devise an attention-augmented snippet feature extractor (AA-SFE) to enhance the encoding of subtle facial movements of each snippet by gradually attending to more salient information. In addition, for inter-snippet modeling, we introduce a shuffled snippet order prediction (SSOP) head and a corresponding loss to improve the modeling of subtle motion changes across subsequent snippets by training the Transformer to identify shuffled snippet orders. Extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (i.e., BU-3DFE, MMI, AFEW, and DFEW) demonstrate that our EST is superior to other CNN-based methods, obtaining state-of-the-art performance.
Scene graph aims to faithfully reveal humans' perception of image content. When humans analyze a scene, they usually prefer to describe image gist first, namely major objects and key relations in a scene graph. This humans' inherent perceptive habit implies that there exists a hierarchical structure about humans' preference during the scene parsing procedure. Therefore, we argue that a desirable scene graph should be also hierarchically constructed, and introduce a new scheme for modeling scene graph. Concretely, a scene is represented by a human-mimetic Hierarchical Entity Tree (HET) consisting of a series of image regions. To generate a scene graph based on HET, we parse HET with a Hybrid Long Short-Term Memory (Hybrid-LSTM) which specifically encodes hierarchy and siblings context to capture the structured information embedded in HET. To further prioritize key relations in the scene graph, we devise a Relation Ranking Module (RRM) to dynamically adjust their rankings by learning to capture humans' subjective perceptive habits from objective entity saliency and size. Experiments indicate that our method not only achieves state-of-the-art performances for scene graph generation, but also is expert in mining image-specific relations which play a great role in serving downstream tasks.