Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) have gained significant attention recently, showing remarkable potential in artificial general intelligence. However, assessing the utility of MLLMs presents considerable challenges, primarily due to the absence multimodal benchmarks that align with human preferences. Inspired by LLM-as-a-Judge in LLMs, this paper introduces a novel benchmark, termed MLLM-as-a-Judge, to assess the ability of MLLMs in assisting judges including three distinct tasks: Scoring Evaluation, Pair Comparison, and Batch Ranking. Our study reveals that, while MLLMs demonstrate remarkable human-like discernment in Pair Comparisons, there is a significant divergence from human preferences in Scoring Evaluation and Batch Ranking tasks. Furthermore, MLLMs still face challenges in judgment, including diverse biases, hallucinatory responses, and inconsistencies, even for advanced models such as GPT-4V. These findings emphasize the pressing need for enhancements and further research efforts regarding MLLMs as fully reliable evaluators. Code and dataset are available at https://github.com/Dongping-Chen/MLLM-as-a-Judge.
Score distillation sampling (SDS) and its variants have greatly boosted the development of text-to-3D generation, but are vulnerable to geometry collapse and poor textures yet. To solve this issue, we first deeply analyze the SDS and find that its distillation sampling process indeed corresponds to the trajectory sampling of a stochastic differential equation (SDE): SDS samples along an SDE trajectory to yield a less noisy sample which then serves as a guidance to optimize a 3D model. However, the randomness in SDE sampling often leads to a diverse and unpredictable sample which is not always less noisy, and thus is not a consistently correct guidance, explaining the vulnerability of SDS. Since for any SDE, there always exists an ordinary differential equation (ODE) whose trajectory sampling can deterministically and consistently converge to the desired target point as the SDE, we propose a novel and effective "Consistent3D" method that explores the ODE deterministic sampling prior for text-to-3D generation. Specifically, at each training iteration, given a rendered image by a 3D model, we first estimate its desired 3D score function by a pre-trained 2D diffusion model, and build an ODE for trajectory sampling. Next, we design a consistency distillation sampling loss which samples along the ODE trajectory to generate two adjacent samples and uses the less noisy sample to guide another more noisy one for distilling the deterministic prior into the 3D model. Experimental results show the efficacy of our Consistent3D in generating high-fidelity and diverse 3D objects and large-scale scenes, as shown in Fig. 1. The codes are available at https://github.com/sail-sg/Consistent3D.
This paper delineates the visual speech recognition (VSR) system introduced by the NPU-ASLP-LiAuto (Team 237) in the first Chinese Continuous Visual Speech Recognition Challenge (CNVSRC) 2023, engaging in the fixed and open tracks of Single-Speaker VSR Task, and the open track of Multi-Speaker VSR Task. In terms of data processing, we leverage the lip motion extractor from the baseline1 to produce multi-scale video data. Besides, various augmentation techniques are applied during training, encompassing speed perturbation, random rotation, horizontal flipping, and color transformation. The VSR model adopts an end-to-end architecture with joint CTC/attention loss, comprising a ResNet3D visual frontend, an E-Branchformer encoder, and a Transformer decoder. Experiments show that our system achieves 34.76% CER for the Single-Speaker Task and 41.06% CER for the Multi-Speaker Task after multi-system fusion, ranking first place in all three tracks we participate.
To promote speech processing and recognition research in driving scenarios, we build on the success of the Intelligent Cockpit Speech Recognition Challenge (ICSRC) held at ISCSLP 2022 and launch the ICASSP 2024 In-Car Multi-Channel Automatic Speech Recognition (ICMC-ASR) Challenge. This challenge collects over 100 hours of multi-channel speech data recorded inside a new energy vehicle and 40 hours of noise for data augmentation. Two tracks, including automatic speech recognition (ASR) and automatic speech diarization and recognition (ASDR) are set up, using character error rate (CER) and concatenated minimum permutation character error rate (cpCER) as evaluation metrics, respectively. Overall, the ICMC-ASR Challenge attracts 98 participating teams and receives 53 valid results in both tracks. In the end, first-place team USTCiflytek achieves a CER of 13.16% in the ASR track and a cpCER of 21.48% in the ASDR track, showing an absolute improvement of 13.08% and 51.4% compared to our challenge baseline, respectively.
While automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems degrade significantly in noisy environments, audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR) systems aim to complement the audio stream with noise-invariant visual cues and improve the system's robustness. However, current studies mainly focus on fusing the well-learned modality features, like the output of modality-specific encoders, without considering the contextual relationship during the modality feature learning. In this study, we propose a multi-layer cross-attention fusion based AVSR (MLCA-AVSR) approach that promotes representation learning of each modality by fusing them at different levels of audio/visual encoders. Experimental results on the MISP2022-AVSR Challenge dataset show the efficacy of our proposed system, achieving a concatenated minimum permutation character error rate (cpCER) of 30.57% on the Eval set and yielding up to 3.17% relative improvement compared with our previous system which ranked the second place in the challenge. Following the fusion of multiple systems, our proposed approach surpasses the first-place system, establishing a new SOTA cpCER of 29.13% on this dataset.
Open-vocabulary keyword spotting (KWS), which allows users to customize keywords, has attracted increasingly more interest. However, existing methods based on acoustic models and post-processing train the acoustic model with ASR training criteria to model all phonemes, making the acoustic model under-optimized for the KWS task. To solve this problem, we propose a novel unified two-pass open-vocabulary KWS (U2-KWS) framework inspired by the two-pass ASR model U2. Specifically, we employ the CTC branch as the first stage model to detect potential keyword candidates and the decoder branch as the second stage model to validate candidates. In order to enhance any customized keywords, we redesign the U2 training procedure for U2-KWS and add keyword information by audio and text cross-attention into both branches. We perform experiments on our internal dataset and Aishell-1. The results show that U2-KWS can achieve a significant relative wake-up rate improvement of 41% compared to the traditional customized KWS systems when the false alarm rate is fixed to 0.5 times per hour.
Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) has shown remarkable progress, yet it still faces challenges in real-world distant scenarios across various array topologies each with multiple recording devices. The focal point of the CHiME-7 Distant ASR task is to devise a unified system capable of generalizing various array topologies that have multiple recording devices and offering reliable recognition performance in real-world environments. Addressing this task, we introduce an ASR system that demonstrates exceptional performance across various array topologies. First of all, we propose two attention-based automatic channel selection modules to select the most advantageous subset of multi-channel signals from multiple recording devices for each utterance. Furthermore, we introduce inter-channel spatial features to augment the effectiveness of multi-frame cross-channel attention, aiding it in improving the capability of spatial information awareness. Finally, we propose a multi-layer convolution fusion module drawing inspiration from the U-Net architecture to integrate the multi-channel output into a single-channel output. Experimental results on the CHiME-7 corpus with oracle segmentation demonstrate that the improvements introduced in our proposed ASR system lead to a relative reduction of 40.1% in the Macro Diarization Attributed Word Error Rates (DA-WER) when compared to the baseline ASR system on the Eval sets.
Graph neural networks (GNNs) have recently been shown to be vulnerable to adversarial attacks, where slight perturbations in the graph structure can lead to erroneous predictions. However, current robust models for defending against such attacks inherit the transductive limitations of graph convolutional networks (GCNs). As a result, they are constrained by fixed structures and do not naturally generalize to unseen nodes. Here, we discover that transductive GCNs inherently possess a distillable robustness, achieved through a wave-induced resonance process. Based on this, we foster this resonance to facilitate inductive and robust learning. Specifically, we first prove that the signal formed by GCN-driven message passing (MP) is equivalent to the edge-based Laplacian wave, where, within a wave system, resonance can naturally emerge between the signal and its transmitting medium. This resonance provides inherent resistance to malicious perturbations inflicted on the signal system. We then prove that merely three MP iterations within GCNs can induce signal resonance between nodes and edges, manifesting as a coupling between nodes and their distillable surrounding local subgraph. Consequently, we present Graph Resonance-fostering Network (GRN) to foster this resonance via learning node representations from their distilled resonating subgraphs. By capturing the edge-transmitted signals within this subgraph and integrating them with the node signal, GRN embeds these combined signals into the central node's representation. This node-wise embedding approach allows for generalization to unseen nodes. We validate our theoretical findings with experiments, and demonstrate that GRN generalizes robustness to unseen nodes, whilst maintaining state-of-the-art classification accuracy on perturbed graphs.
Large Language Models (LLMs) excel in understanding human instructions, driving the development of Multimodal LLMs (MLLMs) with instruction tuning. However, acquiring high-quality multimodal instruction tuning data poses a significant challenge. Previous approaches relying on GPT-4 for data generation proved expensive and exhibited unsatisfactory performance for certain tasks. To solve this, we present Genixer, an innovative data generation pipeline producing high-quality multimodal instruction tuning data for various tasks. Genixer collects datasets for ten prevalent multimodal tasks and designs instruction templates to transform these datasets into instruction-tuning data. It then trains pretrained MLLMs to generate task-specific instruction data and proposes an effective data filtering strategy to ensure high quality. To evaluate Genixer, a base MLLM model, Kakapo, is built and achieves SoTA performance in image captioning and visual question answering (VQA) tasks across multiple datasets. Experimental results show that filtered data from Genixer continually improves Kakapo for image captioning and VQA tasks. For the SoTA Shikra MLLM model on the image-region-related tasks, e.g., region caption and detection, Genixer also successfully generates corresponding data and improves its performance. Genixer opens avenues for generating high-quality multimodal instruction data for diverse tasks, enabling innovative applications across domains. The code and models will be released soon.
Chain-of-Thought (CoT) guides large language models (LLMs) to reason step-by-step, and can motivate their logical reasoning ability. While effective for logical tasks, CoT is not conducive to creative problem-solving which often requires out-of-box thoughts and is crucial for innovation advancements. In this paper, we explore the Leap-of-Thought (LoT) abilities within LLMs -- a non-sequential, creative paradigm involving strong associations and knowledge leaps. To this end, we study LLMs on the popular Oogiri game which needs participants to have good creativity and strong associative thinking for responding unexpectedly and humorously to the given image, text, or both, and thus is suitable for LoT study. Then to investigate LLMs' LoT ability in the Oogiri game, we first build a multimodal and multilingual Oogiri-GO dataset which contains over 130,000 samples from the Oogiri game, and observe the insufficient LoT ability or failures of most existing LLMs on the Oogiri game. Accordingly, we introduce a creative Leap-of-Thought (CLoT) paradigm to improve LLM's LoT ability. CLoT first formulates the Oogiri-GO dataset into LoT-oriented instruction tuning data to train pretrained LLM for achieving certain LoT humor generation and discrimination abilities. Then CLoT designs an explorative self-refinement that encourages the LLM to generate more creative LoT data via exploring parallels between seemingly unrelated concepts and selects high-quality data to train itself for self-refinement. CLoT not only excels in humor generation in the Oogiri game but also boosts creative abilities in various tasks like cloud guessing game and divergent association task. These findings advance our understanding and offer a pathway to improve LLMs' creative capacities for innovative applications across domains. The dataset, code, and models will be released online. https://zhongshsh.github.io/CLoT/.