Few-shot segmentation (FSS) is proposed to segment unknown class targets with just a few annotated samples. Most current FSS methods follow the paradigm of mining the semantics from the support images to guide the query image segmentation. However, such a pattern of `learning from others' struggles to handle the extreme intra-class variation, preventing FSS from being directly generalized to remote sensing scenes. To bridge the gap of intra-class variance, we develop a Dual-Mining network named DMNet for cross-image mining and self-mining, meaning that it no longer focuses solely on support images but pays more attention to the query image itself. Specifically, we propose a Class-public Region Mining (CPRM) module to effectively suppress irrelevant feature pollution by capturing the common semantics between the support-query image pair. The Class-specific Region Mining (CSRM) module is then proposed to continuously mine the class-specific semantics of the query image itself in a `filtering' and `purifying' manner. In addition, to prevent the co-existence of multiple classes in remote sensing scenes from exacerbating the collapse of FSS generalization, we also propose a new Known-class Meta Suppressor (KMS) module to suppress the activation of known-class objects in the sample. Extensive experiments on the iSAID and LoveDA remote sensing datasets have demonstrated that our method sets the state-of-the-art with a minimum number of model parameters. Significantly, our model with the backbone of Resnet-50 achieves the mIoU of 49.58% and 51.34% on iSAID under 1-shot and 5-shot settings, outperforming the state-of-the-art method by 1.8% and 1.12%, respectively. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/HanboBizl/DMNet.
In recent years, remote sensing (RS) vision foundation models such as RingMo have emerged and achieved excellent performance in various downstream tasks. However, the high demand for computing resources limits the application of these models on edge devices. It is necessary to design a more lightweight foundation model to support on-orbit RS image interpretation. Existing methods face challenges in achieving lightweight solutions while retaining generalization in RS image interpretation. This is due to the complex high and low-frequency spectral components in RS images, which make traditional single CNN or Vision Transformer methods unsuitable for the task. Therefore, this paper proposes RingMo-lite, an RS multi-task lightweight network with a CNN-Transformer hybrid framework, which effectively exploits the frequency-domain properties of RS to optimize the interpretation process. It is combined by the Transformer module as a low-pass filter to extract global features of RS images through a dual-branch structure, and the CNN module as a stacked high-pass filter to extract fine-grained details effectively. Furthermore, in the pretraining stage, the designed frequency-domain masked image modeling (FD-MIM) combines each image patch's high-frequency and low-frequency characteristics, effectively capturing the latent feature representation in RS data. As shown in Fig. 1, compared with RingMo, the proposed RingMo-lite reduces the parameters over 60% in various RS image interpretation tasks, the average accuracy drops by less than 2% in most of the scenes and achieves SOTA performance compared to models of the similar size. In addition, our work will be integrated into the MindSpore computing platform in the near future.
Onboard intelligent processing is widely applied in emergency tasks in the field of remote sensing. However, it is predominantly confined to an individual platform with a limited observation range as well as susceptibility to interference, resulting in limited accuracy. Considering the current state of multi-platform collaborative observation, this article innovatively presents a distributed collaborative perception network called DCP-Net. Firstly, the proposed DCP-Net helps members to enhance perception performance by integrating features from other platforms. Secondly, a self-mutual information match module is proposed to identify collaboration opportunities and select suitable partners, prioritizing critical collaborative features and reducing redundant transmission cost. Thirdly, a related feature fusion module is designed to address the misalignment between local and collaborative features, improving the quality of fused features for the downstream task. We conduct extensive experiments and visualization analyses using three semantic segmentation datasets, including Potsdam, iSAID and DFC23. The results demonstrate that DCP-Net outperforms the existing methods comprehensively, improving mIoU by 2.61%~16.89% at the highest collaboration efficiency, which promotes the performance to a state-of-the-art level.
Reasoning ability is one of the most crucial capabilities of a foundation model, signifying its capacity to address complex reasoning tasks. Chain-of-Thought (CoT) technique is widely regarded as one of the effective methods for enhancing the reasoning ability of foundation models and has garnered significant attention. However, the reasoning process of CoT is linear, step-by-step, similar to personal logical reasoning, suitable for solving general and slightly complicated problems. On the contrary, the thinking pattern of an expert owns two prominent characteristics that cannot be handled appropriately in CoT, i.e., high-order multi-hop reasoning and multimodal comparative judgement. Therefore, the core motivation of this paper is transcending CoT to construct a reasoning paradigm that can think like an expert. The hyperedge of a hypergraph could connect various vertices, making it naturally suitable for modelling high-order relationships. Inspired by this, this paper innovatively proposes a multimodal Hypergraph-of-Thought (HoT) reasoning paradigm, which enables the foundation models to possess the expert-level ability of high-order multi-hop reasoning and multimodal comparative judgement. Specifically, a textual hypergraph-of-thought is constructed utilizing triple as the primary thought to model higher-order relationships, and a hyperedge-of-thought is generated through multi-hop walking paths to achieve multi-hop inference. Furthermore, we devise a visual hypergraph-of-thought to interact with the textual hypergraph-of-thought via Cross-modal Co-Attention Graph Learning for multimodal comparative verification. Experimentations on the ScienceQA benchmark demonstrate the proposed HoT-based T5 outperforms CoT-based GPT3.5 and chatGPT, which is on par with CoT-based GPT4 with a lower model size.
Occlusion between objects is one of the overlooked challenges for object detection in UAV images. Due to the variable altitude and angle of UAVs, occlusion in UAV images happens more frequently than that in natural scenes. Compared to occlusion in natural scene images, occlusion in UAV images happens with feature confusion problem and local aggregation characteristic. And we found that extracting or localizing occlusion between objects is beneficial for the detector to address this challenge. According to this finding, the occlusion localization task is introduced, which together with the object detection task constitutes our occlusion-guided multi-task network (OGMN). The OGMN contains the localization of occlusion and two occlusion-guided multi-task interactions. In detail, an occlusion estimation module (OEM) is proposed to precisely localize occlusion. Then the OGMN utilizes the occlusion localization results to implement occlusion-guided detection with two multi-task interactions. One interaction for the guide is between two task decoders to address the feature confusion problem, and an occlusion decoupling head (ODH) is proposed to replace the general detection head. Another interaction for guide is designed in the detection process according to local aggregation characteristic, and a two-phase progressive refinement process (TPP) is proposed to optimize the detection process. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our OGMN on the Visdrone and UAVDT datasets. In particular, our OGMN achieves 35.0% mAP on the Visdrone dataset and outperforms the baseline by 5.3%. And our OGMN provides a new insight for accurate occlusion localization and achieves competitive detection performance.
Humans possess an extraordinary ability to create and utilize tools, allowing them to overcome physical limitations and explore new frontiers. With the advent of foundation models, AI systems have the potential to be equally adept in tool use as humans. This paradigm, i.e., tool learning with foundation models, combines the strengths of specialized tools and foundation models to achieve enhanced accuracy, efficiency, and automation in problem-solving. Despite its immense potential, there is still a lack of a comprehensive understanding of key challenges, opportunities, and future endeavors in this field. To this end, we present a systematic investigation of tool learning in this paper. We first introduce the background of tool learning, including its cognitive origins, the paradigm shift of foundation models, and the complementary roles of tools and models. Then we recapitulate existing tool learning research into tool-augmented and tool-oriented learning. We formulate a general tool learning framework: starting from understanding the user instruction, models should learn to decompose a complex task into several subtasks, dynamically adjust their plan through reasoning, and effectively conquer each sub-task by selecting appropriate tools. We also discuss how to train models for improved tool-use capabilities and facilitate the generalization in tool learning. Considering the lack of a systematic tool learning evaluation in prior works, we experiment with 17 representative tools and show the potential of current foundation models in skillfully utilizing tools. Finally, we discuss several open problems that require further investigation for tool learning. Overall, we hope this paper could inspire future research in integrating tools with foundation models.
Building extraction and height estimation are two important basic tasks in remote sensing image interpretation, which are widely used in urban planning, real-world 3D construction, and other fields. Most of the existing research regards the two tasks as independent studies. Therefore the height information cannot be fully used to improve the accuracy of building extraction and vice versa. In this work, we combine the individuaL buIlding extraction and heiGHt estimation through a unified multiTask learning network (LIGHT) for the first time, which simultaneously outputs a height map, bounding boxes, and a segmentation mask map of buildings. Specifically, LIGHT consists of an instance segmentation branch and a height estimation branch. In particular, so as to effectively unify multi-scale feature branches and alleviate feature spans between branches, we propose a Gated Cross Task Interaction (GCTI) module that can efficiently perform feature interaction between branches. Experiments on the DFC2023 dataset show that our LIGHT can achieve superior performance, and our GCTI module with ResNet101 as the backbone can significantly improve the performance of multitask learning by 2.8% AP50 and 6.5% delta1, respectively.
Siamese network based trackers develop rapidly in the field of visual object tracking in recent years. The majority of siamese network based trackers now in use treat each channel in the feature maps generated by the backbone network equally, making the similarity response map sensitive to background influence and hence challenging to focus on the target region. Additionally, there are no structural links between the classification and regression branches in these trackers, and the two branches are optimized separately during training. Therefore, there is a misalignment between the classification and regression branches, which results in less accurate tracking results. In this paper, a Target Highlight Module is proposed to help the generated similarity response maps to be more focused on the target region. To reduce the misalignment and produce more precise tracking results, we propose a corrective loss to train the model. The two branches of the model are jointly tuned with the use of corrective loss to produce more reliable prediction results. Experiments on 5 challenging benchmark datasets reveal that the method outperforms current models in terms of performance, and runs at 38 fps, proving its effectiveness and efficiency.
Multimodal hate detection, which aims to identify harmful content online such as memes, is crucial for building a wholesome internet environment. Previous work has made enlightening exploration in detecting explicit hate remarks. However, most of their approaches neglect the analysis of implicit harm, which is particularly challenging as explicit text markers and demographic visual cues are often twisted or missing. The leveraged cross-modal attention mechanisms also suffer from the distributional modality gap and lack logical interpretability. To address these semantic gaps issues, we propose TOT: a topology-aware optimal transport framework to decipher the implicit harm in memes scenario, which formulates the cross-modal aligning problem as solutions for optimal transportation plans. Specifically, we leverage an optimal transport kernel method to capture complementary information from multiple modalities. The kernel embedding provides a non-linear transformation ability to reproduce a kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), which reflects significance for eliminating the distributional modality gap. Moreover, we perceive the topology information based on aligned representations to conduct bipartite graph path reasoning. The newly achieved state-of-the-art performance on two publicly available benchmark datasets, together with further visual analysis, demonstrate the superiority of TOT in capturing implicit cross-modal alignment.
Building 3D reconstruction from remote sensing images has a wide range of applications in smart cities, photogrammetry and other fields. Methods for automatic 3D urban building modeling typically employ multi-view images as input to algorithms to recover point clouds and 3D models of buildings. However, such models rely heavily on multi-view images of buildings, which are time-intensive and limit the applicability and practicality of the models. To solve these issues, we focus on designing an efficient DSM estimation-driven reconstruction framework (Building3D), which aims to reconstruct 3D building models from the input single-view remote sensing image. First, we propose a Semantic Flow Field-guided DSM Estimation (SFFDE) network, which utilizes the proposed concept of elevation semantic flow to achieve the registration of local and global features. Specifically, in order to make the network semantics globally aware, we propose an Elevation Semantic Globalization (ESG) module to realize the semantic globalization of instances. Further, in order to alleviate the semantic span of global features and original local features, we propose a Local-to-Global Elevation Semantic Registration (L2G-ESR) module based on elevation semantic flow. Our Building3D is rooted in the SFFDE network for building elevation prediction, synchronized with a building extraction network for building masks, and then sequentially performs point cloud reconstruction, surface reconstruction (or CityGML model reconstruction). On this basis, our Building3D can optionally generate CityGML models or surface mesh models of the buildings. Extensive experiments on ISPRS Vaihingen and DFC2019 datasets on the DSM estimation task show that our SFFDE significantly improves upon state-of-the-arts. Furthermore, our Building3D achieves impressive results in the 3D point cloud and 3D model reconstruction process.