In this study, we present a transductive inference approach on that reward information propagation graph, which enables the effective estimation of rewards for unlabelled data in offline reinforcement learning. Reward inference is the key to learning effective policies in practical scenarios, while direct environmental interactions are either too costly or unethical and the reward functions are rarely accessible, such as in healthcare and robotics. Our research focuses on developing a reward inference method based on the contextual properties of information propagation on graphs that capitalizes on a constrained number of human reward annotations to infer rewards for unlabelled data. We leverage both the available data and limited reward annotations to construct a reward propagation graph, wherein the edge weights incorporate various influential factors pertaining to the rewards. Subsequently, we employ the constructed graph for transductive reward inference, thereby estimating rewards for unlabelled data. Furthermore, we establish the existence of a fixed point during several iterations of the transductive inference process and demonstrate its at least convergence to a local optimum. Empirical evaluations on locomotion and robotic manipulation tasks validate the effectiveness of our approach. The application of our inferred rewards improves the performance in offline reinforcement learning tasks.
Recommender systems have been widely deployed in various real-world applications to help users identify content of interest from massive amounts of information. Traditional recommender systems work by collecting user-item interaction data in a cloud-based data center and training a centralized model to perform the recommendation service. However, such cloud-based recommender systems (CloudRSs) inevitably suffer from excessive resource consumption, response latency, as well as privacy and security risks concerning both data and models. Recently, driven by the advances in storage, communication, and computation capabilities of edge devices, there has been a shift of focus from CloudRSs to on-device recommender systems (DeviceRSs), which leverage the capabilities of edge devices to minimize centralized data storage requirements, reduce the response latency caused by communication overheads, and enhance user privacy and security by localizing data processing and model training. Despite the rapid rise of DeviceRSs, there is a clear absence of timely literature reviews that systematically introduce, categorize and contrast these methods. To bridge this gap, we aim to provide a comprehensive survey of DeviceRSs, covering three main aspects: (1) the deployment and inference of DeviceRSs (2) the training and update of DeviceRSs (3) the security and privacy of DeviceRSs. Furthermore, we provide a fine-grained and systematic taxonomy of the methods involved in each aspect, followed by a discussion regarding challenges and future research directions. This is the first comprehensive survey on DeviceRSs that covers a spectrum of tasks to fit various needs. We believe this survey will help readers effectively grasp the current research status in this field, equip them with relevant technical foundations, and stimulate new research ideas for developing DeviceRSs.
As artificial intelligence (AI) continues to rapidly evolve, the realm of Earth and atmospheric sciences is increasingly adopting data-driven models, powered by progressive developments in deep learning (DL). Specifically, DL techniques are extensively utilized to decode the chaotic and nonlinear aspects of Earth systems, and to address climate challenges via understanding weather and climate data. Cutting-edge performance on specific tasks within narrower spatio-temporal scales has been achieved recently through DL. The rise of large models, specifically large language models (LLMs), has enabled fine-tuning processes that yield remarkable outcomes across various downstream tasks, thereby propelling the advancement of general AI. However, we are still navigating the initial stages of crafting general AI for weather and climate. In this survey, we offer an exhaustive, timely overview of state-of-the-art AI methodologies specifically engineered for weather and climate data, with a special focus on time series and text data. Our primary coverage encompasses four critical aspects: types of weather and climate data, principal model architectures, model scopes and applications, and datasets for weather and climate. Furthermore, in relation to the creation and application of foundation models for weather and climate data understanding, we delve into the field's prevailing challenges, offer crucial insights, and propose detailed avenues for future research. This comprehensive approach equips practitioners with the requisite knowledge to make substantial progress in this domain. Our survey encapsulates the most recent breakthroughs in research on large, data-driven models for weather and climate data understanding, emphasizing robust foundations, current advancements, practical applications, crucial resources, and prospective research opportunities.
* Ongoing work. Survey Paper. 35 pages, 2 figures, 4 tables. The first
work to comprehensively and systematically summarize DL-based weather and
climate data understanding, paving the way for the development of weather and
climate foundation models
Reinforcement learning is an essential paradigm for solving sequential decision problems under uncertainty. Despite many remarkable achievements in recent decades, applying reinforcement learning methods in the real world remains challenging. One of the main obstacles is that reinforcement learning agents lack a fundamental understanding of the world and must therefore learn from scratch through numerous trial-and-error interactions. They may also face challenges in providing explanations for their decisions and generalizing the acquired knowledge. Causality, however, offers a notable advantage as it can formalize knowledge in a systematic manner and leverage invariance for effective knowledge transfer. This has led to the emergence of causal reinforcement learning, a subfield of reinforcement learning that seeks to enhance existing algorithms by incorporating causal relationships into the learning process. In this survey, we comprehensively review the literature on causal reinforcement learning. We first introduce the basic concepts of causality and reinforcement learning, and then explain how causality can address core challenges in non-causal reinforcement learning. We categorize and systematically review existing causal reinforcement learning approaches based on their target problems and methodologies. Finally, we outline open issues and future directions in this emerging field.
A robust summarization system should be able to capture the gist of the document, regardless of the specific word choices or noise in the input. In this work, we first explore the summarization models' robustness against perturbations including word-level synonym substitution and noise. To create semantic-consistent substitutes, we propose a SummAttacker, which is an efficient approach to generating adversarial samples based on language models. Experimental results show that state-of-the-art summarization models have a significant decrease in performance on adversarial and noisy test sets. Next, we analyze the vulnerability of the summarization systems and explore improving the robustness by data augmentation. Specifically, the first brittleness factor we found is the poor understanding of infrequent words in the input. Correspondingly, we feed the encoder with more diverse cases created by SummAttacker in the input space. The other factor is in the latent space, where the attacked inputs bring more variations to the hidden states. Hence, we construct adversarial decoder input and devise manifold softmixing operation in hidden space to introduce more diversity. Experimental results on Gigaword and CNN/DM datasets demonstrate that our approach achieves significant improvements over strong baselines and exhibits higher robustness on noisy, attacked, and clean datasets.
Distribution shift (e.g., task or domain shift) in continual learning (CL) usually results in catastrophic forgetting of neural networks. Although it can be alleviated by repeatedly replaying buffered data, the every-step replay is time-consuming. In this paper, we study which modules in neural networks are more prone to forgetting by investigating their training dynamics during CL. Our proposed metrics show that only a few modules are more task-specific and sensitively alter between tasks, while others can be shared across tasks as common knowledge. Hence, we attribute forgetting mainly to the former and find that finetuning them only on a small buffer at the end of any CL method can bring non-trivial improvement. Due to the small number of finetuned parameters, such ``Forgetting Prioritized Finetuning (FPF)'' is efficient in computation. We further propose a more efficient and simpler method that entirely removes the every-step replay and replaces them by only $k$-times of FPF periodically triggered during CL. Surprisingly, this ``$k$-FPF'' performs comparably to FPF and outperforms the SOTA CL methods but significantly reduces their computational overhead and cost. In experiments on several benchmarks of class- and domain-incremental CL, FPF consistently improves existing CL methods by a large margin, and $k$-FPF further excels in efficiency without degrading the accuracy. We also empirically studied the impact of buffer size, epochs per task, and finetuning modules on the cost and accuracy of our methods.
As a few large-scale pre-trained models become the major choices of various applications, new challenges arise for model pruning, e.g., can we avoid pruning the same model from scratch for every downstream task? How to reuse the pruning results of previous tasks to accelerate the pruning for a new task? To address these challenges, we create a small model for a new task from the pruned models of similar tasks. We show that a few fine-tuning steps on this model suffice to produce a promising pruned-model for the new task. We study this ''meta-pruning'' from nearest tasks on two major classes of pre-trained models, convolutional neural network (CNN) and vision transformer (ViT), under a limited budget of pruning iterations. Our study begins by investigating the overlap of pruned models for similar tasks and how the overlap changes over different layers and blocks. Inspired by these discoveries, we develop a simple but effective ''Meta-Vote Pruning (MVP)'' method that significantly reduces the pruning iterations for a new task by initializing a sub-network from the pruned models of its nearest tasks. In experiments, we demonstrate MVP's advantages in accuracy, efficiency, and generalization through extensive empirical studies and comparisons with popular pruning methods over several datasets.
Federated recommendation is a new Internet service architecture that aims to provide privacy-preserving recommendation services in federated settings. Existing solutions are used to combine distributed recommendation algorithms and privacy-preserving mechanisms. Thus it inherently takes the form of heavyweight models at the server and hinders the deployment of on-device intelligent models to end-users. This paper proposes a novel Personalized Federated Recommendation (PFedRec) framework to learn many user-specific lightweight models to be deployed on smart devices rather than a heavyweight model on a server. Moreover, we propose a new dual personalization mechanism to effectively learn fine-grained personalization on both users and items. The overall learning process is formulated into a unified federated optimization framework. Specifically, unlike previous methods that share exactly the same item embeddings across users in a federated system, dual personalization allows mild finetuning of item embeddings for each user to generate user-specific views for item representations which can be integrated into existing federated recommendation methods to gain improvements immediately. Experiments on multiple benchmark datasets have demonstrated the effectiveness of PFedRec and the dual personalization mechanism. Moreover, we provide visualizations and in-depth analysis of the personalization techniques in item embedding, which shed novel insights on the design of RecSys in federated settings.
Graph neural networks (GNNs) have shown their superiority in modeling graph data. Owing to the advantages of federated learning, federated graph learning (FGL) enables clients to train strong GNN models in a distributed manner without sharing their private data. A core challenge in federated systems is the non-IID problem, which also widely exists in real-world graph data. For example, local data of clients may come from diverse datasets or even domains, e.g., social networks and molecules, increasing the difficulty for FGL methods to capture commonly shared knowledge and learn a generalized encoder. From real-world graph datasets, we observe that some structural properties are shared by various domains, presenting great potential for sharing structural knowledge in FGL. Inspired by this, we propose FedStar, an FGL framework that extracts and shares the common underlying structure information for inter-graph federated learning tasks. To explicitly extract the structure information rather than encoding them along with the node features, we define structure embeddings and encode them with an independent structure encoder. Then, the structure encoder is shared across clients while the feature-based knowledge is learned in a personalized way, making FedStar capable of capturing more structure-based domain-invariant information and avoiding feature misalignment issues. We perform extensive experiments over both cross-dataset and cross-domain non-IID FGL settings, demonstrating the superiority of FedStar.
Unsupervised anomaly detection (AD) is a challenging task in realistic applications. Recently, there is an increasing trend to detect anomalies with deep neural networks (DNN). However, most popular deep AD detectors cannot protect the network from learning contaminated information brought by anomalous data, resulting in unsatisfactory detection performance and overfitting issues. In this work, we identify one reason that hinders most existing DNN-based anomaly detection methods from performing is the wide adoption of the Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM). ERM assumes that the performance of an algorithm on an unknown distribution can be approximated by averaging losses on the known training set. This averaging scheme thus ignores the distinctions between normal and anomalous instances. To break through the limitations of ERM, we propose a novel Diminishing Empirical Risk Minimization (DERM) framework. Specifically, DERM adaptively adjusts the impact of individual losses through a well-devised aggregation strategy. Theoretically, our proposed DERM can directly modify the gradient contribution of each individual loss in the optimization process to suppress the influence of outliers, leading to a robust anomaly detector. Empirically, DERM outperformed the state-of-the-art on the unsupervised AD benchmark consisting of 18 datasets.
* 8 pages, 4 figures, to be published in IJCNN at IEEE WCCI 2022