Recent studies in Radiance Fields have paved the robust way for novel view synthesis with their photorealistic rendering quality. Nevertheless, they usually employ neural networks and volumetric rendering, which are costly to train and impede their broad use in various real-time applications due to the lengthy rendering time. Lately 3D Gaussians splatting-based approach has been proposed to model the 3D scene, and it achieves remarkable visual quality while rendering the images in real-time. However, it suffers from severe degradation in the rendering quality if the training images are blurry. Blurriness commonly occurs due to the lens defocusing, object motion, and camera shake, and it inevitably intervenes in clean image acquisition. Several previous studies have attempted to render clean and sharp images from blurry input images using neural fields. The majority of those works, however, are designed only for volumetric rendering-based neural radiance fields and are not straightforwardly applicable to rasterization-based 3D Gaussian splatting methods. Thus, we propose a novel real-time deblurring framework, deblurring 3D Gaussian Splatting, using a small Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) that manipulates the covariance of each 3D Gaussian to model the scene blurriness. While deblurring 3D Gaussian Splatting can still enjoy real-time rendering, it can reconstruct fine and sharp details from blurry images. A variety of experiments have been conducted on the benchmark, and the results have revealed the effectiveness of our approach for deblurring. Qualitative results are available at https://benhenryl.github.io/Deblurring-3D-Gaussian-Splatting/
Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) have demonstrated remarkable potential in capturing complex 3D scenes with high fidelity. However, one persistent challenge that hinders the widespread adoption of NeRFs is the computational bottleneck due to the volumetric rendering. On the other hand, 3D Gaussian splatting (3DGS) has recently emerged as an alternative representation that leverages a 3D Gaussisan-based representation and adopts the rasterization pipeline to render the images rather than volumetric rendering, achieving very fast rendering speed and promising image quality. However, a significant drawback arises as 3DGS entails a substantial number of 3D Gaussians to maintain the high fidelity of the rendered images, which requires a large amount of memory and storage. To address this critical issue, we place a specific emphasis on two key objectives: reducing the number of Gaussian points without sacrificing performance and compressing the Gaussian attributes, such as view-dependent color and covariance. To this end, we propose a learnable mask strategy that significantly reduces the number of Gaussians while preserving high performance. In addition, we propose a compact but effective representation of view-dependent color by employing a grid-based neural field rather than relying on spherical harmonics. Finally, we learn codebooks to compactly represent the geometric attributes of Gaussian by vector quantization. In our extensive experiments, we consistently show over 10$\times$ reduced storage and enhanced rendering speed, while maintaining the quality of the scene representation, compared to 3DGS. Our work provides a comprehensive framework for 3D scene representation, achieving high performance, fast training, compactness, and real-time rendering. Our project page is available at https://maincold2.github.io/c3dgs/.
Orchestrating a high-quality data preparation program is essential for successful machine learning (ML), but it is known to be time and effort consuming. Despite the impressive capabilities of large language models like ChatGPT in generating programs by interacting with users through natural language prompts, there are still limitations. Specifically, a user must provide specific prompts to iteratively guide ChatGPT in improving data preparation programs, which requires a certain level of expertise in programming, the dataset used and the ML task. Moreover, once a program has been generated, it is non-trivial to revisit a previous version or make changes to the program without starting the process over again. In this paper, we present ChatPipe, a novel system designed to facilitate seamless interaction between users and ChatGPT. ChatPipe provides users with effective recommendation on next data preparation operations, and guides ChatGPT to generate program for the operations. Also, ChatPipe enables users to easily roll back to previous versions of the program, which facilitates more efficient experimentation and testing. We have developed a web application for ChatPipe and prepared several real-world ML tasks from Kaggle. These tasks can showcase the capabilities of ChatPipe and enable VLDB attendees to easily experiment with our novel features to rapidly orchestrate a high-quality data preparation program.
Location-scale noise models (LSNMs) are a class of heteroscedastic structural causal models with wide applicability, closely related to affine flow models. Recent likelihood-based methods designed for LSNMs that infer cause-effect relationships achieve state-of-the-art accuracy, when their assumptions are satisfied concerning the noise distributions. However, under misspecification their accuracy deteriorates sharply, especially when the conditional variance in the anti-causal direction is smaller than that in the causal direction. In this paper, we demonstrate the misspecification problem and analyze why and when it occurs. We show that residual independence testing is much more robust to misspecification than likelihood-based cause-effect inference. Our empirical evaluation includes 580 synthetic and 99 real-world datasets.
We propose a score-based DAG structure learning method for time-series data that captures linear, nonlinear, lagged and instantaneous relations among variables while ensuring acyclicity throughout the entire graph. The proposed method extends nonparametric NOTEARS, a recent continuous optimization approach for learning nonparametric instantaneous DAGs. The proposed method is faster than constraint-based methods using nonlinear conditional independence tests. We also promote the use of optimization constraints to incorporate prior knowledge into the structure learning process. A broad set of experiments with simulated data demonstrates that the proposed method discovers better DAG structures than several recent comparison methods. We also evaluate the proposed method on complex real-world data acquired from NHL ice hockey games containing a mixture of continuous and discrete variables. The code is available at https://github.com/xiangyu-sun-789/NTS-NOTEARS/.
This paper addresses the trade-off between Accuracy and Transparency for deep learning applied to sports analytics. Neural nets achieve great predictive accuracy through deep learning, and are popular in sports analytics. But it is hard to interpret a neural net model and harder still to extract actionable insights from the knowledge implicit in it. Therefore, we built a simple and transparent model that mimics the output of the original deep learning model and represents the learned knowledge in an explicit interpretable way. Our mimic model is a linear model tree, which combines a collection of linear models with a regression-tree structure. The tree version of a neural network achieves high fidelity, explains itself, and produces insights for expert stakeholders such as athletes and coaches. We propose and compare several scalable model tree learning heuristics to address the computational challenge from datasets with millions of data points.
* Accepted by the 26th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and
Data Mining (KDD 2020); Added the tenth feature to Table 3 for soccer;