Text-to-music generation models are now capable of generating high-quality music audio in broad styles. However, text control is primarily suitable for the manipulation of global musical attributes like genre, mood, and tempo, and is less suitable for precise control over time-varying attributes such as the positions of beats in time or the changing dynamics of the music. We propose Music ControlNet, a diffusion-based music generation model that offers multiple precise, time-varying controls over generated audio. To imbue text-to-music models with time-varying control, we propose an approach analogous to pixel-wise control of the image-domain ControlNet method. Specifically, we extract controls from training audio yielding paired data, and fine-tune a diffusion-based conditional generative model over audio spectrograms given melody, dynamics, and rhythm controls. While the image-domain Uni-ControlNet method already allows generation with any subset of controls, we devise a new strategy to allow creators to input controls that are only partially specified in time. We evaluate both on controls extracted from audio and controls we expect creators to provide, demonstrating that we can generate realistic music that corresponds to control inputs in both settings. While few comparable music generation models exist, we benchmark against MusicGen, a recent model that accepts text and melody input, and show that our model generates music that is 49% more faithful to input melodies despite having 35x fewer parameters, training on 11x less data, and enabling two additional forms of time-varying control. Sound examples can be found at https://MusicControlNet.github.io/web/.
TorchAudio is an open-source audio and speech processing library built for PyTorch. It aims to accelerate the research and development of audio and speech technologies by providing well-designed, easy-to-use, and performant PyTorch components. Its contributors routinely engage with users to understand their needs and fulfill them by developing impactful features. Here, we survey TorchAudio's development principles and contents and highlight key features we include in its latest version (2.1): self-supervised learning pre-trained pipelines and training recipes, high-performance CTC decoders, speech recognition models and training recipes, advanced media I/O capabilities, and tools for performing forced alignment, multi-channel speech enhancement, and reference-less speech assessment. For a selection of these features, through empirical studies, we demonstrate their efficacy and show that they achieve competitive or state-of-the-art performance.
We propose a multi-task universal speech enhancement (MUSE) model that can perform five speech enhancement (SE) tasks: dereverberation, denoising, speech separation (SS), target speaker extraction (TSE), and speaker counting. This is achieved by integrating two modules into an SE model: 1) an internal separation module that does both speaker counting and separation; and 2) a TSE module that extracts the target speech from the internal separation outputs using target speaker cues. The model is trained to perform TSE if the target speaker cue is given and SS otherwise. By training the model to remove noise and reverberation, we allow the model to tackle the five tasks mentioned above with a single model, which has not been accomplished yet. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed MUSE model can successfully handle multiple tasks with a single model.
Large Language models (LLM) have demonstrated the capability to handle a variety of generative tasks. This paper presents the UniAudio system, which, unlike prior task-specific approaches, leverages LLM techniques to generate multiple types of audio (including speech, sounds, music, and singing) with given input conditions. UniAudio 1) first tokenizes all types of target audio along with other condition modalities, 2) concatenates source-target pair as a single sequence, and 3) performs next-token prediction using LLM. Also, a multi-scale Transformer model is proposed to handle the overly long sequences caused by the residual vector quantization based neural codec in tokenization. Training of UniAudio is scaled up to 165K hours of audio and 1B parameters, based on all generative tasks, aiming to obtain sufficient prior knowledge not only in the intrinsic properties of audio but also the inter-relationship between audio and other modalities. Therefore, the trained UniAudio model has the potential to become a foundation model for universal audio generation: it shows strong capability in all trained tasks and can seamlessly support new audio generation tasks after simple fine-tuning. Experiments demonstrate that UniAudio achieves state-of-the-art or at least competitive results on most of the 11 tasks. Demo and code are released at https://github.com/yangdongchao/UniAudio
The 2023 Multilingual Speech Universal Performance Benchmark (ML-SUPERB) Challenge expands upon the acclaimed SUPERB framework, emphasizing self-supervised models in multilingual speech recognition and language identification. The challenge comprises a research track focused on applying ML-SUPERB to specific multilingual subjects, a Challenge Track for model submissions, and a New Language Track where language resource researchers can contribute and evaluate their low-resource language data in the context of the latest progress in multilingual speech recognition. The challenge garnered 12 model submissions and 54 language corpora, resulting in a comprehensive benchmark encompassing 154 languages. The findings indicate that merely scaling models is not the definitive solution for multilingual speech tasks, and a variety of speech/voice types present significant challenges in multilingual speech processing.
Recently, the usefulness of self-supervised representation learning (SSRL) methods has been confirmed in various downstream tasks. Many of these models, as exemplified by HuBERT and WavLM, use pseudo-labels generated from spectral features or the model's own representation features. From previous studies, it is known that the pseudo-labels contain semantic information. However, the masked prediction task, the learning criterion of HuBERT, focuses on local contextual information and may not make effective use of global semantic information such as speaker, theme of speech, and so on. In this paper, we propose a new approach to enrich the semantic representation of HuBERT. We apply topic model to pseudo-labels to generate a topic label for each utterance. An auxiliary topic classification task is added to HuBERT by using topic labels as teachers. This allows additional global semantic information to be incorporated in an unsupervised manner. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves comparable or better performance than the baseline in most tasks, including automatic speech recognition and five out of the eight SUPERB tasks. Moreover, we find that topic labels include various information about utterance, such as gender, speaker, and its theme. This highlights the effectiveness of our approach in capturing multifaceted semantic nuances.
Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) models have demonstrated exceptional performance in various speech tasks, particularly in low-resource and multilingual domains. Recent works show that fusing SSL models could achieve superior performance compared to using one SSL model. However, fusion models have increased model parameter size, leading to longer inference times. In this paper, we propose a novel approach of predicting other SSL models' features from a single SSL model, resulting in a light-weight framework with competitive performance. Our experiments show that SSL feature prediction models outperform individual SSL models in multilingual speech recognition tasks. The leading prediction model achieves an average SUPERB score increase of 135.4 in ML-SUPERB benchmarks. Moreover, our proposed framework offers an efficient solution, as it reduces the resulting model parameter size and inference times compared to previous fusion models.
Recent studies have demonstrated promising outcomes by employing large language models with multi-tasking capabilities. They utilize prompts to guide the model's behavior and surpass performance of task-specific models. Motivated by this, we ask: can we build a single model that jointly perform various spoken language understanding (SLU) tasks? To address this, we utilize pre-trained automatic speech recognition (ASR) models and employ various task and dataset specifiers as discrete prompts. We demonstrate efficacy of our single multi-task learning (MTL) model "UniverSLU" for 12 different speech classification and sequence generation tasks across 17 datasets and 9 languages. Results show that UniverSLU achieves competitive performance and even surpasses task-specific models. We also conduct preliminary investigations into enabling human-interpretable natural phrases instead of task specifiers as discrete prompts and test the model's generalization capabilities to new paraphrases.
This paper presents a novel framework for joint speaker diarization (SD) and automatic speech recognition (ASR), named SLIDAR (sliding-window diarization-augmented recognition). SLIDAR can process arbitrary length inputs and can handle any number of speakers, effectively solving ``who spoke what, when'' concurrently. SLIDAR leverages a sliding window approach and consists of an end-to-end diarization-augmented speech transcription (E2E DAST) model which provides, locally, for each window: transcripts, diarization and speaker embeddings. The E2E DAST model is based on an encoder-decoder architecture and leverages recent techniques such as serialized output training and ``Whisper-style" prompting. The local outputs are then combined to get the final SD+ASR result by clustering the speaker embeddings to get global speaker identities. Experiments performed on monaural recordings from the AMI corpus confirm the effectiveness of the method in both close-talk and far-field speech scenarios.
Pre-training speech models on large volumes of data has achieved remarkable success. OpenAI Whisper is a multilingual multitask model trained on 680k hours of supervised speech data. It generalizes well to various speech recognition and translation benchmarks even in a zero-shot setup. However, the full pipeline for developing such models (from data collection to training) is not publicly accessible, which makes it difficult for researchers to further improve its performance and address training-related issues such as efficiency, robustness, fairness, and bias. This work presents an Open Whisper-style Speech Model (OWSM), which reproduces Whisper-style training using an open-source toolkit and publicly available data. OWSM even supports more translation directions and can be more efficient to train. We will publicly release all scripts used for data preparation, training, inference, and scoring as well as pre-trained models and training logs to promote open science.