We present the Radiation Oncology NLP Database (ROND), the first dedicated Natural Language Processing (NLP) dataset for radiation oncology, an important medical specialty that has received limited attention from the NLP community in the past. With the advent of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), there is an increasing need for specialized datasets and benchmarks to facilitate research and development. ROND is specifically designed to address this gap in the domain of radiation oncology, a field that offers many opportunities for NLP exploration. It encompasses various NLP tasks including Logic Reasoning, Text Classification, Named Entity Recognition (NER), Question Answering (QA), Text Summarization, and Patient-Clinician Conversations, each with a distinct focus on radiation oncology concepts and application cases. In addition, we have developed an instruction-tuning dataset consisting of over 20k instruction pairs (based on ROND) and trained a large language model, CancerChat. This serves to demonstrate the potential of instruction-tuning large language models within a highly-specialized medical domain. The evaluation results in this study could serve as baseline results for future research. ROND aims to stimulate advancements in radiation oncology and clinical NLP by offering a platform for testing and improving algorithms and models in a domain-specific context. The ROND dataset is a joint effort of multiple U.S. health institutions. The data is available at https://github.com/zl-liu/Radiation-Oncology-NLP-Database.
This paper presents RadOnc-GPT, a large language model specialized for radiation oncology through advanced tuning methods. RadOnc-GPT was finetuned on a large dataset of radiation oncology patient records and clinical notes from the Mayo Clinic in Arizona. The model employs instruction tuning on three key tasks - generating radiotherapy treatment regimens, determining optimal radiation modalities, and providing diagnostic descriptions/ICD codes based on patient diagnostic details. Evaluations conducted by comparing RadOnc-GPT outputs to general large language model outputs showed that RadOnc-GPT generated outputs with significantly improved clarity, specificity, and clinical relevance. The study demonstrated the potential of using large language models fine-tuned using domain-specific knowledge like RadOnc-GPT to achieve transformational capabilities in highly specialized healthcare fields such as radiation oncology.
The rise of large language models (LLMs) has marked a pivotal shift in the field of natural language processing (NLP). LLMs have revolutionized a multitude of domains, and they have made a significant impact in the medical field. Large language models are now more abundant than ever, and many of these models exhibit bilingual capabilities, proficient in both English and Chinese. However, a comprehensive evaluation of these models remains to be conducted. This lack of assessment is especially apparent within the context of radiology NLP. This study seeks to bridge this gap by critically evaluating thirty two LLMs in interpreting radiology reports, a crucial component of radiology NLP. Specifically, the ability to derive impressions from radiologic findings is assessed. The outcomes of this evaluation provide key insights into the performance, strengths, and weaknesses of these LLMs, informing their practical applications within the medical domain.