Computer vision (CV), a non-intrusive and cost-effective technology, has furthered the development of precision livestock farming by enabling optimized decision-making through timely and individualized animal care. The availability of affordable two- and three-dimensional camera sensors, combined with various machine learning and deep learning algorithms, has provided a valuable opportunity to improve livestock production systems. However, despite the availability of various CV tools in the public domain, applying these tools to animal data can be challenging, often requiring users to have programming and data analysis skills, as well as access to computing resources. Moreover, the rapid expansion of precision livestock farming is creating a growing need to educate and train animal science students in CV. This presents educators with the challenge of efficiently demonstrating the complex algorithms involved in CV. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop ShinyAnimalCV, an open-source cloud-based web application. This application provides a user-friendly interface for performing CV tasks, including object segmentation, detection, three-dimensional surface visualization, and extraction of two- and three-dimensional morphological features. Nine pre-trained CV models using top-view animal data are included in the application. ShinyAnimalCV has been deployed online using cloud computing platforms. The source code of ShinyAnimalCV is available on GitHub, along with detailed documentation on training CV models using custom data and deploying ShinyAnimalCV locally to allow users to fully leverage the capabilities of the application. ShinyAnimalCV can contribute to CV research and teaching in the animal science community.
Large language models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT, are able to generate human-like, fluent responses for many downstream tasks, e.g., task-oriented dialog and question answering. However, applying LLMs to real-world, mission-critical applications remains challenging mainly due to their tendency to generate hallucinations and their inability to use external knowledge. This paper proposes a LLM-Augmenter system, which augments a black-box LLM with a set of plug-and-play modules. Our system makes the LLM generate responses grounded in external knowledge, e.g., stored in task-specific databases. It also iteratively revises LLM prompts to improve model responses using feedback generated by utility functions, e.g., the factuality score of a LLM-generated response. The effectiveness of LLM-Augmenter is empirically validated on two types of scenarios, task-oriented dialog and open-domain question answering. LLM-Augmenter significantly reduces ChatGPT's hallucinations without sacrificing the fluency and informativeness of its responses. We make the source code and models publicly available.
Based on the weight-sharing mechanism, one-shot NAS methods train a supernet and then inherit the pre-trained weights to evaluate sub-models, largely reducing the search cost. However, several works have pointed out that the shared weights suffer from different gradient descent directions during training. And we further find that large gradient variance occurs during supernet training, which degrades the supernet ranking consistency. To mitigate this issue, we propose to explicitly minimize the gradient variance of the supernet training by jointly optimizing the sampling distributions of PAth and DAta (PA&DA). We theoretically derive the relationship between the gradient variance and the sampling distributions, and reveal that the optimal sampling probability is proportional to the normalized gradient norm of path and training data. Hence, we use the normalized gradient norm as the importance indicator for path and training data, and adopt an importance sampling strategy for the supernet training. Our method only requires negligible computation cost for optimizing the sampling distributions of path and data, but achieves lower gradient variance during supernet training and better generalization performance for the supernet, resulting in a more consistent NAS. We conduct comprehensive comparisons with other improved approaches in various search spaces. Results show that our method surpasses others with more reliable ranking performance and higher accuracy of searched architectures, showing the effectiveness of our method. Code is available at https://github.com/ShunLu91/PA-DA.
In autonomous driving, the novel objects and lack of annotations challenge the traditional 3D LiDAR semantic segmentation based on deep learning. Few-shot learning is a feasible way to solve these issues. However, currently few-shot semantic segmentation methods focus on camera data, and most of them only predict the novel classes without considering the base classes. This setting cannot be directly applied to autonomous driving due to safety concerns. Thus, we propose a few-shot 3D LiDAR semantic segmentation method that predicts both novel classes and base classes simultaneously. Our method tries to solve the background ambiguity problem in generalized few-shot semantic segmentation. We first review the original cross-entropy and knowledge distillation losses, then propose a new loss function that incorporates the background information to achieve 3D LiDAR few-shot semantic segmentation. Extensive experiments on SemanticKITTI demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
Conventional clustering methods based on pairwise affinity usually suffer from the concentration effect while processing huge dimensional features yet low sample sizes data, resulting in inaccuracy to encode the sample proximity and suboptimal performance in clustering. To address this issue, we propose a unified tensor clustering method (UTC) that characterizes sample proximity using multiple samples' affinity, thereby supplementing rich spatial sample distributions to boost clustering. Specifically, we find that the triadic tensor affinity can be constructed via the Khari-Rao product of two affinity matrices. Furthermore, our early work shows that the fourth-order tensor affinity is defined by the Kronecker product. Therefore, we utilize arithmetical products, Khatri-Rao and Kronecker products, to mathematically integrate different orders of affinity into a unified tensor clustering framework. Thus, the UTC jointly learns a joint low-dimensional embedding to combine various orders. Finally, a numerical scheme is designed to solve the problem. Experiments on synthetic datasets and real-world datasets demonstrate that 1) the usage of high-order tensor affinity could provide a supplementary characterization of sample proximity to the popular affinity matrix; 2) the proposed method of UTC is affirmed to enhance clustering by exploiting different order affinities when processing high-dimensional data.
Efficient collaboration between engineers and radiologists is important for image reconstruction algorithm development and image quality evaluation in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we develop CloudBrain-ReconAI, an online cloud computing platform, for algorithm deployment, fast and blind reader study. This platform supports online image reconstruction using state-of-the-art artificial intelligence and compressed sensing algorithms with applications to fast imaging and high-resolution diffusion imaging. Through visiting the website, radiologists can easily score and mark the images. Then, automatic statistical analysis will be provided. CloudBrain-ReconAI is now open accessed at https://csrc.xmu.edu.cn/CloudBrain.html and will be continually improved to serve the MRI research community.
We introduce a lightweight network to improve descriptors of keypoints within the same image. The network takes the original descriptors and the geometric properties of keypoints as the input, and uses an MLP-based self-boosting stage and a Transformer-based cross-boosting stage to enhance the descriptors. The enhanced descriptors can be either real-valued or binary ones. We use the proposed network to boost both hand-crafted (ORB, SIFT) and the state-of-the-art learning-based descriptors (SuperPoint, ALIKE) and evaluate them on image matching, visual localization, and structure-from-motion tasks. The results show that our method significantly improves the performance of each task, particularly in challenging cases such as large illumination changes or repetitive patterns. Our method requires only 3.2ms on desktop GPU and 27ms on embedded GPU to process 2000 features, which is fast enough to be applied to a practical system.
We are interested in the problem of learning the directed acyclic graph (DAG) when data are generated from a linear structural equation model (SEM) and the causal structure can be characterized by a polytree. Specially, under both Gaussian and sub-Gaussian models, we study the sample size conditions for the well-known Chow-Liu algorithm to exactly recover the equivalence class of the polytree, which is uniquely represented by a CPDAG. We also study the error rate for the estimation of the inverse correlation matrix under such models. Our theoretical findings are illustrated by comprehensive numerical simulations, and experiments on benchmark data also demonstrate the robustness of the method when the ground truth graphical structure can only be approximated by a polytree.