Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) aims to map entities and relations of a knowledge graph (KG) into a low-dimensional and dense vector space via contrasting the positive and negative triples. In the training process of KGEs, negative sampling is essential to find high-quality negative triples since KGs only contain positive triples. Most existing negative sampling methods assume that non-existent triples with high scores are high-quality negative triples. However, negative triples sampled by these methods are likely to contain noise. Specifically, they ignore that non-existent triples with high scores might also be true facts due to the incompleteness of KGs, which are usually called false negative triples. To alleviate the above issue, we propose an easily pluggable denoising mixup method called DeMix, which generates high-quality triples by refining sampled negative triples in a self-supervised manner. Given a sampled unlabeled triple, DeMix firstly classifies it into a marginal pseudo-negative triple or a negative triple based on the judgment of the KGE model itself. Secondly, it selects an appropriate mixup partner for the current triple to synthesize a partially positive or a harder negative triple. Experimental results on the knowledge graph completion task show that the proposed DeMix is superior to other negative sampling techniques, ensuring corresponding KGEs a faster convergence and better link prediction results.
Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE) has proven to be an effective approach to solving the Knowledge Graph Completion (KGC) task. Relational patterns which refer to relations with specific semantics exhibiting graph patterns are an important factor in the performance of KGE models. Though KGE models' capabilities are analyzed over different relational patterns in theory and a rough connection between better relational patterns modeling and better performance of KGC has been built, a comprehensive quantitative analysis on KGE models over relational patterns remains absent so it is uncertain how the theoretical support of KGE to a relational pattern contributes to the performance of triples associated to such a relational pattern. To address this challenge, we evaluate the performance of 7 KGE models over 4 common relational patterns on 2 benchmarks, then conduct an analysis in theory, entity frequency, and part-to-whole three aspects and get some counterintuitive conclusions. Finally, we introduce a training-free method Score-based Patterns Adaptation (SPA) to enhance KGE models' performance over various relational patterns. This approach is simple yet effective and can be applied to KGE models without additional training. Our experimental results demonstrate that our method generally enhances performance over specific relational patterns. Our source code is available from GitHub at https://github.com/zjukg/Comprehensive-Study-over-Relational-Patterns.
The practice of transferring knowledge from a sophisticated, closed-source large language model (LLM) to a compact, open-source LLM has garnered considerable attention. Previous works have focused on a unidirectional knowledge distillation way by aligning the responses of the student model with those of the teacher model to a set of instructions. Nevertheless, they overlooked the possibility of incorporating any reciprocal "feedback"--identifying challenging instructions where the student model's performance falls short--to boost the student model's proficiency iteratively. To this end, we propose a novel adversarial distillation framework for a more efficient knowledge transfer. Leveraging the versatile role adaptability of LLMs, we prompt the closed-source model to identify "hard" instructions and generate new "hard" instructions for the student model, creating a three-stage adversarial loop of imitation, discrimination, and generation. By applying this adversarial framework, we successfully transfer knowledge from ChatGPT to a 7B student model (named Lion), achieving nearly 95% capability approximation using a mere 70k training data. We aspire that this proposed model may serve as the baseline to reflect the performance of ChatGPT, especially the open-source instruction-following language model baseline for our community.
Since the dynamic characteristics of knowledge graphs, many inductive knowledge graph representation learning (KGRL) works have been proposed in recent years, focusing on enabling prediction over new entities. NeuralKG-ind is the first library of inductive KGRL as an important update of NeuralKG library. It includes standardized processes, rich existing methods, decoupled modules, and comprehensive evaluation metrics. With NeuralKG-ind, it is easy for researchers and engineers to reproduce, redevelop, and compare inductive KGRL methods. The library, experimental methodologies, and model re-implementing results of NeuralKG-ind are all publicly released at https://github.com/zjukg/NeuralKG/tree/ind .
Negative sampling (NS) is widely used in knowledge graph embedding (KGE), which aims to generate negative triples to make a positive-negative contrast during training. However, existing NS methods are unsuitable when multi-modal information is considered in KGE models. They are also inefficient due to their complex design. In this paper, we propose Modality-Aware Negative Sampling (MANS) for multi-modal knowledge graph embedding (MMKGE) to address the mentioned problems. MANS could align structural and visual embeddings for entities in KGs and learn meaningful embeddings to perform better in multi-modal KGE while keeping lightweight and efficient. Empirical results on two benchmarks demonstrate that MANS outperforms existing NS methods. Meanwhile, we make further explorations about MANS to confirm its effectiveness.
Knowledge graphs (KG) are essential background knowledge providers in many tasks. When designing models for KG-related tasks, one of the key tasks is to devise the Knowledge Representation and Fusion (KRF) module that learns the representation of elements from KGs and fuses them with task representations. While due to the difference of KGs and perspectives to be considered during fusion across tasks, duplicate and ad hoc KRF modules design are conducted among tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel knowledge graph pretraining model KGTransformer that could serve as a uniform KRF module in diverse KG-related tasks. We pretrain KGTransformer with three self-supervised tasks with sampled sub-graphs as input. For utilization, we propose a general prompt-tuning mechanism regarding task data as a triple prompt to allow flexible interactions between task KGs and task data. We evaluate pretrained KGTransformer on three tasks, triple classification, zero-shot image classification, and question answering. KGTransformer consistently achieves better results than specifically designed task models. Through experiments, we justify that the pretrained KGTransformer could be used off the shelf as a general and effective KRF module across KG-related tasks. The code and datasets are available at https://github.com/zjukg/KGTransformer.
Knowledge graphs (KGs) have become effective knowledge resources in diverse applications, and knowledge graph embedding (KGE) methods have attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, it's still challenging for conventional KGE methods to handle unseen entities or relations during the model test. Much effort has been made in various fields of KGs to address this problem. In this paper, we use a set of general terminologies to unify these methods and refer to them as Knowledge Extrapolation. We comprehensively summarize these methods classified by our proposed taxonomy and describe their correlations. Next, we introduce the benchmarks and provide comparisons of these methods from aspects that are not reflected by the taxonomy. Finally, we suggest some potential directions for future research.
We propose an entity-agnostic representation learning method for handling the problem of inefficient parameter storage costs brought by embedding knowledge graphs. Conventional knowledge graph embedding methods map elements in a knowledge graph, including entities and relations, into continuous vector spaces by assigning them one or multiple specific embeddings (i.e., vector representations). Thus the number of embedding parameters increases linearly as the growth of knowledge graphs. In our proposed model, Entity-Agnostic Representation Learning (EARL), we only learn the embeddings for a small set of entities and refer to them as reserved entities. To obtain the embeddings for the full set of entities, we encode their distinguishable information from their connected relations, k-nearest reserved entities, and multi-hop neighbors. We learn universal and entity-agnostic encoders for transforming distinguishable information into entity embeddings. This approach allows our proposed EARL to have a static, efficient, and lower parameter count than conventional knowledge graph embedding methods. Experimental results show that EARL uses fewer parameters and performs better on link prediction tasks than baselines, reflecting its parameter efficiency.
In this work, we share our experience on tele-knowledge pre-training for fault analysis. Fault analysis is a vital task for tele-application, which should be timely and properly handled. Fault analysis is also a complex task, that has many sub-tasks. Solving each task requires diverse tele-knowledge. Machine log data and product documents contain part of the tele-knowledge. We create a Tele-KG to organize other tele-knowledge from experts uniformly. With these valuable tele-knowledge data, in this work, we propose a tele-domain pre-training model KTeleBERT and its knowledge-enhanced version KTeleBERT, which includes effective prompt hints, adaptive numerical data encoding, and two knowledge injection paradigms. We train our model in two stages: pre-training TeleBERT on 20 million telecommunication corpora and re-training TeleBERT on 1 million causal and machine corpora to get the KTeleBERT. Then, we apply our models for three tasks of fault analysis, including root-cause analysis, event association prediction, and fault chain tracing. The results show that with KTeleBERT, the performance of task models has been boosted, demonstrating the effectiveness of pre-trained KTeleBERT as a model containing diverse tele-knowledge.
In knowledge graph completion (KGC), predicting triples involving emerging entities and/or relations, which are unseen when the KG embeddings are learned, has become a critical challenge. Subgraph reasoning with message passing is a promising and popular solution. Some recent methods have achieved good performance, but they (i) usually can only predict triples involving unseen entities alone, failing to address more realistic fully inductive situations with both unseen entities and unseen relations, and (ii) often conduct message passing over the entities with the relation patterns not fully utilized. In this study, we propose a new method named RMPI which uses a novel Relational Message Passing network for fully Inductive KGC. It passes messages directly between relations to make full use of the relation patterns for subgraph reasoning with new techniques on graph transformation, graph pruning, relation-aware neighborhood attention, addressing empty subgraphs, etc., and can utilize the relation semantics defined in the ontological schema of KG. Extensive evaluation on multiple benchmarks has shown the effectiveness of techniques involved in RMPI and its better performance compared with the existing methods that support fully inductive KGC. RMPI is also comparable to the state-of-the-art partially inductive KGC methods with very promising results achieved. Our codes and data are available at https://github.com/zjukg/RMPI.