It is challenging but highly desired to acquire high-quality photos with clear content in low-light environments. Although multi-image processing methods (using burst, dual-exposure, or multi-exposure images) have made significant progress in addressing this issue, they typically focus exclusively on specific restoration or enhancement tasks, being insufficient in exploiting multi-image. Motivated by that multi-exposure images are complementary in denoising, deblurring, high dynamic range imaging, and super-resolution, we propose to utilize bracketing photography to unify restoration and enhancement tasks in this work. Due to the difficulty in collecting real-world pairs, we suggest a solution that first pre-trains the model with synthetic paired data and then adapts it to real-world unlabeled images. In particular, a temporally modulated recurrent network (TMRNet) and self-supervised adaptation method are proposed. Moreover, we construct a data simulation pipeline to synthesize pairs and collect real-world images from 200 nighttime scenarios. Experiments on both datasets show that our method performs favorably against the state-of-the-art multi-image processing ones. The dataset, code, and pre-trained models are available at https://github.com/cszhilu1998/BracketIRE.
When taking photos under an environment with insufficient light, the exposure time and the sensor gain usually require to be carefully chosen to obtain images with satisfying visual quality. For example, the images with high ISO usually have inescapable noise, while the long-exposure ones may be blurry due to camera shake or object motion. Existing solutions generally suggest to seek a balance between noise and blur, and learn denoising or deblurring models under either full- or self-supervision. However, the real-world training pairs are difficult to collect, and the self-supervised methods merely rely on blurry or noisy images are limited in performance. In this work, we tackle this problem by jointly leveraging the short-exposure noisy image and the long-exposure blurry image for better image restoration. Such setting is practically feasible due to that short-exposure and long-exposure images can be either acquired by two individual cameras or synthesized by a long burst of images. Moreover, the short-exposure images are hardly blurry, and the long-exposure ones have negligible noise. Their complementarity makes it feasible to learn restoration model in a self-supervised manner. Specifically, the noisy images can be used as the supervision information for deblurring, while the sharp areas in the blurry images can be utilized as the auxiliary supervision information for self-supervised denoising. By learning in a collaborative manner, the deblurring and denoising tasks in our method can benefit each other. Experiments on synthetic and real-world images show the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed method. Codes are available at https://github.com/cszhilu1998/SelfIR.
Full-reference (FR) image quality assessment (IQA) evaluates the visual quality of a distorted image by measuring its perceptual difference with pristine-quality reference, and has been widely used in low-level vision tasks. Pairwise labeled data with mean opinion score (MOS) are required in training FR-IQA model, but is time-consuming and cumbersome to collect. In contrast, unlabeled data can be easily collected from an image degradation or restoration process, making it encouraging to exploit unlabeled training data to boost FR-IQA performance. Moreover, due to the distribution inconsistency between labeled and unlabeled data, outliers may occur in unlabeled data, further increasing the training difficulty. In this paper, we suggest to incorporate semi-supervised and positive-unlabeled (PU) learning for exploiting unlabeled data while mitigating the adverse effect of outliers. Particularly, by treating all labeled data as positive samples, PU learning is leveraged to identify negative samples (i.e., outliers) from unlabeled data. Semi-supervised learning (SSL) is further deployed to exploit positive unlabeled data by dynamically generating pseudo-MOS. We adopt a dual-branch network including reference and distortion branches. Furthermore, spatial attention is introduced in the reference branch to concentrate more on the informative regions, and sliced Wasserstein distance is used for robust difference map computation to address the misalignment issues caused by images recovered by GAN models. Extensive experiments show that our method performs favorably against state-of-the-arts on the benchmark datasets PIPAL, KADID-10k, TID2013, LIVE and CSIQ.
Recently, multiple synthetic and real-world datasets have been built to facilitate the training of deep single image reflection removal (SIRR) models. Meanwhile, diverse testing sets are also provided with different types of reflection and scenes. However, the non-negligible domain gaps between training and testing sets make it difficult to learn deep models generalizing well to testing images. The diversity of reflections and scenes further makes it a mission impossible to learn a single model being effective to all testing sets and real-world reflections. In this paper, we tackle these issues by learning SIRR models from a domain generalization perspective. Particularly, for each source set, a specific SIRR model is trained to serve as a domain expert of relevant reflection types. For a given reflection-contaminated image, we present a reflection type-aware weighting (RTAW) module to predict expert-wise weights. RTAW can then be incorporated with adaptive network combination (AdaNEC) for handling different reflection types and scenes, i.e., generalizing to unknown domains. Two representative AdaNEC methods, i.e., output fusion (OF) and network interpolation (NI), are provided by considering both adaptation levels and efficiency. For images from one source set, we train RTAW to only predict expert-wise weights of other domain experts for improving generalization ability, while the weights of all experts are predicted and employed during testing. An in-domain expert (IDE) loss is presented for training RTAW. Extensive experiments show the appealing performance gain of our AdaNEC on different state-of-the-art SIRR networks. Source code and pre-trained models will available at https://github.com/csmliu/AdaNEC.
For flexible non-blind image denoising, existing deep networks usually take both noisy image and noise level map as the input to handle various noise levels with a single model. However, in this kind of solution, the noise variance (i.e., noise level) is only deployed to modulate the first layer of convolution feature with channel-wise shifting, which is limited in balancing noise removal and detail preservation. In this paper, we present a novel flexible image enoising network (CFMNet) by equipping an U-Net backbone with multi-layer conditional feature modulation (CFM) modules. In comparison to channel-wise shifting only in the first layer, CFMNet can make better use of noise level information by deploying multiple layers of CFM. Moreover, each CFM module takes onvolutional features from both noisy image and noise level map as input for better trade-off between noise removal and detail preservation. Experimental results show that our CFMNet is effective in exploiting noise level information for flexible non-blind denoising, and performs favorably against the existing deep image denoising methods in terms of both quantitative metrics and visual quality.
Despite their success in Gaussian denoising, deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are still very limited on real noisy photographs, and may even perform worse than the representative traditional methods such as BM3D and K-SVD. In order to improve the robustness and practicability of deep denoising models, this paper presents a convolutional blind denoising network (CBDNet) by incorporating network architecture, noise modeling, and asymmetric learning. Our CBDNet is comprised of a noise estimation subnetwork and a denoising subnetwork, and is trained using a more realistic noise model by considering both signal-dependent noise and in-camera processing pipeline. Motivated by the asymmetric sensitivity of non-blind denoisers (e.g., BM3D) to noise estimation error, the asymmetric learning is presented on the noise estimation subnetwork to suppress more on under-estimation of noise level. To make the learned model applicable to real photographs, both synthetic images based on realistic noise model and real noisy photographs with nearly noise-free images are incorporated to train our CBDNet. The results on three datasets of real noisy photographs clearly demonstrate the superiority of our CBDNet over the state-of-the-art denoisers in terms of quantitative metrics and visual quality. The code and models will be publicly available at https://github.com/GuoShi28/CBDNet.