Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE) has proven to be an effective approach to solving the Knowledge Graph Completion (KGC) task. Relational patterns which refer to relations with specific semantics exhibiting graph patterns are an important factor in the performance of KGE models. Though KGE models' capabilities are analyzed over different relational patterns in theory and a rough connection between better relational patterns modeling and better performance of KGC has been built, a comprehensive quantitative analysis on KGE models over relational patterns remains absent so it is uncertain how the theoretical support of KGE to a relational pattern contributes to the performance of triples associated to such a relational pattern. To address this challenge, we evaluate the performance of 7 KGE models over 4 common relational patterns on 2 benchmarks, then conduct an analysis in theory, entity frequency, and part-to-whole three aspects and get some counterintuitive conclusions. Finally, we introduce a training-free method Score-based Patterns Adaptation (SPA) to enhance KGE models' performance over various relational patterns. This approach is simple yet effective and can be applied to KGE models without additional training. Our experimental results demonstrate that our method generally enhances performance over specific relational patterns. Our source code is available from GitHub at https://github.com/zjukg/Comprehensive-Study-over-Relational-Patterns.
Recent years have seen significant advancements in multi-modal knowledge graph completion (MMKGC). MMKGC enhances knowledge graph completion (KGC) by integrating multi-modal entity information, thereby facilitating the discovery of unobserved triples in the large-scale knowledge graphs (KGs). Nevertheless, existing methods emphasize the design of elegant KGC models to facilitate modality interaction, neglecting the real-life problem of missing modalities in KGs. The missing modality information impedes modal interaction, consequently undermining the model's performance. In this paper, we propose a modality adversarial and contrastive framework (MACO) to solve the modality-missing problem in MMKGC. MACO trains a generator and discriminator adversarially to generate missing modality features that can be incorporated into the MMKGC model. Meanwhile, we design a cross-modal contrastive loss to improve the performance of the generator. Experiments on public benchmarks with further explorations demonstrate that MACO could achieve state-of-the-art results and serve as a versatile framework to bolster various MMKGC models. Our code and benchmark data are available at https://github.com/zjukg/MACO.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have taken Knowledge Representation -- and the world -- by storm. This inflection point marks a shift from explicit knowledge representation to a renewed focus on the hybrid representation of both explicit knowledge and parametric knowledge. In this position paper, we will discuss some of the common debate points within the community on LLMs (parametric knowledge) and Knowledge Graphs (explicit knowledge) and speculate on opportunities and visions that the renewed focus brings, as well as related research topics and challenges.
As a crucial extension of entity alignment (EA), multi-modal entity alignment (MMEA) aims to identify identical entities across disparate knowledge graphs (KGs) by exploiting associated visual information. However, existing MMEA approaches primarily concentrate on the fusion paradigm of multi-modal entity features, while neglecting the challenges presented by the pervasive phenomenon of missing and intrinsic ambiguity of visual images. In this paper, we present a further analysis of visual modality incompleteness, benchmarking latest MMEA models on our proposed dataset MMEA-UMVM, where the types of alignment KGs covering bilingual and monolingual, with standard (non-iterative) and iterative training paradigms to evaluate the model performance. Our research indicates that, in the face of modality incompleteness, models succumb to overfitting the modality noise, and exhibit performance oscillations or declines at high rates of missing modality. This proves that the inclusion of additional multi-modal data can sometimes adversely affect EA. To address these challenges, we introduce UMAEA , a robust multi-modal entity alignment approach designed to tackle uncertainly missing and ambiguous visual modalities. It consistently achieves SOTA performance across all 97 benchmark splits, significantly surpassing existing baselines with limited parameters and time consumption, while effectively alleviating the identified limitations of other models. Our code and benchmark data are available at https://github.com/zjukg/UMAEA.
Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) focuses on representing the entities and relations of a knowledge graph (KG) into the continuous vector spaces, which can be employed to predict the missing triples to achieve knowledge graph completion (KGC). However, KGE models often only briefly learn structural correlations of triple data and embeddings would be misled by the trivial patterns and noisy links in real-world KGs. To address this issue, we build the new paradigm of KGE in the context of causality and embedding disentanglement. We further propose a Causality-enhanced knowledge graph Embedding (CausE) framework. CausE employs causal intervention to estimate the causal effect of the confounder embeddings and design new training objectives to make stable predictions. Experimental results demonstrate that CausE could outperform the baseline models and achieve state-of-the-art KGC performance. We release our code in https://github.com/zjukg/CausE.
Recent advances and achievements of artificial intelligence (AI) as well as deep and graph learning models have established their usefulness in biomedical applications, especially in drug-drug interactions (DDIs). DDIs refer to a change in the effect of one drug to the presence of another drug in the human body, which plays an essential role in drug discovery and clinical research. DDIs prediction through traditional clinical trials and experiments is an expensive and time-consuming process. To correctly apply the advanced AI and deep learning, the developer and user meet various challenges such as the availability and encoding of data resources, and the design of computational methods. This review summarizes chemical structure based, network based, NLP based and hybrid methods, providing an updated and accessible guide to the broad researchers and development community with different domain knowledge. We introduce widely-used molecular representation and describe the theoretical frameworks of graph neural network models for representing molecular structures. We present the advantages and disadvantages of deep and graph learning methods by performing comparative experiments. We discuss the potential technical challenges and highlight future directions of deep and graph learning models for accelerating DDIs prediction.
Text image translation (TIT) aims to translate the source texts embedded in the image to target translations, which has a wide range of applications and thus has important research value. However, current studies on TIT are confronted with two main bottlenecks: 1) this task lacks a publicly available TIT dataset, 2) dominant models are constructed in a cascaded manner, which tends to suffer from the error propagation of optical character recognition (OCR). In this work, we first annotate a Chinese-English TIT dataset named OCRMT30K, providing convenience for subsequent studies. Then, we propose a TIT model with a multimodal codebook, which is able to associate the image with relevant texts, providing useful supplementary information for translation. Moreover, we present a multi-stage training framework involving text machine translation, image-text alignment, and TIT tasks, which fully exploits additional bilingual texts, OCR dataset and our OCRMT30K dataset to train our model. Extensive experiments and in-depth analyses strongly demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model and training framework.
Dense retrieval is widely used for entity linking to retrieve entities from large-scale knowledge bases. Mainstream techniques are based on a dual-encoder framework, which encodes mentions and entities independently and calculates their relevances via rough interaction metrics, resulting in difficulty in explicitly modeling multiple mention-relevant parts within entities to match divergent mentions. Aiming at learning entity representations that can match divergent mentions, this paper proposes a Multi-View Enhanced Distillation (MVD) framework, which can effectively transfer knowledge of multiple fine-grained and mention-relevant parts within entities from cross-encoders to dual-encoders. Each entity is split into multiple views to avoid irrelevant information being over-squashed into the mention-relevant view. We further design cross-alignment and self-alignment mechanisms for this framework to facilitate fine-grained knowledge distillation from the teacher model to the student model. Meanwhile, we reserve a global-view that embeds the entity as a whole to prevent dispersal of uniform information. Experiments show our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on several entity linking benchmarks.
Large-scale vision-language pre-training has shown promising advances on various downstream tasks and achieved significant performance in multi-modal understanding and generation tasks. However, existing methods often perform poorly on image-text matching tasks that require a detailed semantics understanding of the text. Although there have been some works on this problem, they do not sufficiently exploit the structural knowledge present in sentences to enhance multi-modal language representations, which leads to poor performance. In this paper, we present an end-to-end framework Structure-CLIP, which integrates latent detailed semantics from the text to enhance fine-grained semantic representations. Specifically, (1) we use scene graphs in order to pay more attention to the detailed semantic learning in the text and fully explore structured knowledge between fine-grained semantics, and (2) we utilize the knowledge-enhanced framework with the help of the scene graph to make full use of representations of structured knowledge. To verify the effectiveness of our proposed method, we pre-trained our models with the aforementioned approach and conduct experiments on different downstream tasks. Numerical results show that Structure-CLIP can often achieve state-of-the-art performance on both VG-Attribution and VG-Relation datasets. Extensive experiments show its components are effective and its predictions are interpretable, which proves that our proposed method can enhance detailed semantic representation well.
Since the dynamic characteristics of knowledge graphs, many inductive knowledge graph representation learning (KGRL) works have been proposed in recent years, focusing on enabling prediction over new entities. NeuralKG-ind is the first library of inductive KGRL as an important update of NeuralKG library. It includes standardized processes, rich existing methods, decoupled modules, and comprehensive evaluation metrics. With NeuralKG-ind, it is easy for researchers and engineers to reproduce, redevelop, and compare inductive KGRL methods. The library, experimental methodologies, and model re-implementing results of NeuralKG-ind are all publicly released at https://github.com/zjukg/NeuralKG/tree/ind .