Existing single image reflection removal (SIRR) methods using deep learning tend to miss key low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) differences in images, affecting their effectiveness in removing reflections. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel prompt-guided reflection removal (PromptRR) framework that uses frequency information as new visual prompts for better reflection performance. Specifically, the proposed framework decouples the reflection removal process into the prompt generation and subsequent prompt-guided restoration. For the prompt generation, we first propose a prompt pre-training strategy to train a frequency prompt encoder that encodes the ground-truth image into LF and HF prompts. Then, we adopt diffusion models (DMs) as prompt generators to generate the LF and HF prompts estimated by the pre-trained frequency prompt encoder. For the prompt-guided restoration, we integrate specially generated prompts into the PromptFormer network, employing a novel Transformer-based prompt block to effectively steer the model toward enhanced reflection removal. The results on commonly used benchmarks show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches. The codes and models are available at https://github.com/TaoWangzj/PromptRR.
This study introduces LRDif, a novel diffusion-based framework designed specifically for facial expression recognition (FER) within the context of under-display cameras (UDC). To address the inherent challenges posed by UDC's image degradation, such as reduced sharpness and increased noise, LRDif employs a two-stage training strategy that integrates a condensed preliminary extraction network (FPEN) and an agile transformer network (UDCformer) to effectively identify emotion labels from UDC images. By harnessing the robust distribution mapping capabilities of Diffusion Models (DMs) and the spatial dependency modeling strength of transformers, LRDif effectively overcomes the obstacles of noise and distortion inherent in UDC environments. Comprehensive experiments on standard FER datasets including RAF-DB, KDEF, and FERPlus, LRDif demonstrate state-of-the-art performance, underscoring its potential in advancing FER applications. This work not only addresses a significant gap in the literature by tackling the UDC challenge in FER but also sets a new benchmark for future research in the field.
Face recognition systems have raised concerns due to their vulnerability to different presentation attacks, and system security has become an increasingly critical concern. Although many face anti-spoofing (FAS) methods perform well in intra-dataset scenarios, their generalization remains a challenge. To address this issue, some methods adopt domain adversarial training (DAT) to extract domain-invariant features. However, the competition between the encoder and the domain discriminator can cause the network to be difficult to train and converge. In this paper, we propose a domain adversarial attack (DAA) method to mitigate the training instability problem by adding perturbations to the input images, which makes them indistinguishable across domains and enables domain alignment. Moreover, since models trained on limited data and types of attacks cannot generalize well to unknown attacks, we propose a dual perceptual and generative knowledge distillation framework for face anti-spoofing that utilizes pre-trained face-related models containing rich face priors. Specifically, we adopt two different face-related models as teachers to transfer knowledge to the target student model. The pre-trained teacher models are not from the task of face anti-spoofing but from perceptual and generative tasks, respectively, which implicitly augment the data. By combining both DAA and dual-teacher knowledge distillation, we develop a dual teacher knowledge distillation with domain alignment framework (DTDA) for face anti-spoofing. The advantage of our proposed method has been verified through extensive ablation studies and comparison with state-of-the-art methods on public datasets across multiple protocols.
Blind face restoration is an important task in computer vision and has gained significant attention due to its wide-range applications. In this work, we delve into the potential of leveraging the pretrained Stable Diffusion for blind face restoration. We propose BFRffusion which is thoughtfully designed to effectively extract features from low-quality face images and could restore realistic and faithful facial details with the generative prior of the pretrained Stable Diffusion. In addition, we build a privacy-preserving face dataset called PFHQ with balanced attributes like race, gender, and age. This dataset can serve as a viable alternative for training blind face restoration methods, effectively addressing privacy and bias concerns usually associated with the real face datasets. Through an extensive series of experiments, we demonstrate that our BFRffusion achieves state-of-the-art performance on both synthetic and real-world public testing datasets for blind face restoration and our PFHQ dataset is an available resource for training blind face restoration networks. The codes, pretrained models, and dataset are released at https://github.com/chenxx89/BFRffusion.
Images or videos captured by the Under-Display Camera (UDC) suffer from severe degradation, such as saturation degeneration and color shift. While restoration for UDC has been a critical task, existing works of UDC restoration focus only on images. UDC video restoration (UDC-VR) has not been explored in the community. In this work, we first propose a GAN-based generation pipeline to simulate the realistic UDC degradation process. With the pipeline, we build the first large-scale UDC video restoration dataset called PexelsUDC, which includes two subsets named PexelsUDC-T and PexelsUDC-P corresponding to different displays for UDC. Using the proposed dataset, we conduct extensive benchmark studies on existing video restoration methods and observe their limitations on the UDC-VR task. To this end, we propose a novel transformer-based baseline method that adaptively enhances degraded videos. The key components of the method are a spatial branch with local-aware transformers, a temporal branch embedded temporal transformers, and a spatial-temporal fusion module. These components drive the model to fully exploit spatial and temporal information for UDC-VR. Extensive experiments show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on PexelsUDC. The benchmark and the baseline method are expected to promote the progress of UDC-VR in the community, which will be made public.
In recent years, Transformer networks are beginning to replace pure convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in the field of computer vision due to their global receptive field and adaptability to input. However, the quadratic computational complexity of softmax-attention limits the wide application in image dehazing task, especially for high-resolution images. To address this issue, we propose a new Transformer variant, which applies the Taylor expansion to approximate the softmax-attention and achieves linear computational complexity. A multi-scale attention refinement module is proposed as a complement to correct the error of the Taylor expansion. Furthermore, we introduce a multi-branch architecture with multi-scale patch embedding to the proposed Transformer, which embeds features by overlapping deformable convolution of different scales. The design of multi-scale patch embedding is based on three key ideas: 1) various sizes of the receptive field; 2) multi-level semantic information; 3) flexible shapes of the receptive field. Our model, named Multi-branch Transformer expanded by Taylor formula (MB-TaylorFormer), can embed coarse to fine features more flexibly at the patch embedding stage and capture long-distance pixel interactions with limited computational cost. Experimental results on several dehazing benchmarks show that MB-TaylorFormer achieves state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance with a light computational burden. The source code and pre-trained models are available at https://github.com/FVL2020/ICCV-2023-MB-TaylorFormer.
By hiding the front-facing camera below the display panel, Under-Display Camera (UDC) provides users with a full-screen experience. However, due to the characteristics of the display, images taken by UDC suffer from significant quality degradation. Methods have been proposed to tackle UDC image restoration and advances have been achieved. There are still no specialized methods and datasets for restoring UDC face images, which may be the most common problem in the UDC scene. To this end, considering color filtering, brightness attenuation, and diffraction in the imaging process of UDC, we propose a two-stage network UDC Degradation Model Network named UDC-DMNet to synthesize UDC images by modeling the processes of UDC imaging. Then we use UDC-DMNet and high-quality face images from FFHQ and CelebA-Test to create UDC face training datasets FFHQ-P/T and testing datasets CelebA-Test-P/T for UDC face restoration. We propose a novel dictionary-guided transformer network named DGFormer. Introducing the facial component dictionary and the characteristics of the UDC image in the restoration makes DGFormer capable of addressing blind face restoration in UDC scenarios. Experiments show that our DGFormer and UDC-DMNet achieve state-of-the-art performance.
Understanding human interaction with objects is an important research topic for embodied Artificial Intelligence and identifying the objects that humans are interacting with is a primary problem for interaction understanding. Existing methods rely on frame-based detectors to locate interacting objects. However, this approach is subjected to heavy occlusions, background clutter, and distracting objects. To address the limitations, in this paper, we propose to leverage spatio-temporal information of hand-object interaction to track interactive objects under these challenging cases. Without prior knowledge of the general objects to be tracked like object tracking problems, we first utilize the spatial relation between hands and objects to adaptively discover the interacting objects from the scene. Second, the consistency and continuity of the appearance of objects between successive frames are exploited to track the objects. With this tracking formulation, our method also benefits from training on large-scale general object-tracking datasets. We further curate a video-level hand-object interaction dataset for testing and evaluation from 100DOH. The quantitative results demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, in scenes with continuous interaction with different objects, we achieve an impressive improvement of about 10% as evaluated using the Average Precision (AP) metric. Our qualitative findings also illustrate that our method can produce more continuous trajectories for interacting objects.
For safety-related applications, it is crucial to produce trustworthy deep neural networks whose prediction is associated with confidence that can represent the likelihood of correctness for subsequent decision-making. Existing dense binary classification models are prone to being over-confident. To improve model calibration, we propose Adaptive Stochastic Label Perturbation (ASLP) which learns a unique label perturbation level for each training image. ASLP employs our proposed Self-Calibrating Binary Cross Entropy (SC-BCE) loss, which unifies label perturbation processes including stochastic approaches (like DisturbLabel), and label smoothing, to correct calibration while maintaining classification rates. ASLP follows Maximum Entropy Inference of classic statistical mechanics to maximise prediction entropy with respect to missing information. It performs this while: (1) preserving classification accuracy on known data as a conservative solution, or (2) specifically improves model calibration degree by minimising the gap between the prediction accuracy and expected confidence of the target training label. Extensive results demonstrate that ASLP can significantly improve calibration degrees of dense binary classification models on both in-distribution and out-of-distribution data. The code is available on https://github.com/Carlisle-Liu/ASLP.