Most real-world networks are noisy and incomplete samples from an unknown target distribution. Refining them by correcting corruptions or inferring unobserved regions typically improves downstream performance. Inspired by the impressive generative capabilities that have been used to correct corruptions in images, and the similarities between "in-painting" and filling in missing nodes and edges conditioned on the observed graph, we propose a novel graph generative framework, SGDM, which is based on subgraph diffusion. Our framework not only improves the scalability and fidelity of graph diffusion models, but also leverages the reverse process to perform novel, conditional generation tasks. In particular, through extensive empirical analysis and a set of novel metrics, we demonstrate that our proposed model effectively supports the following refinement tasks for partially observable networks: T1: denoising extraneous subgraphs, T2: expanding existing subgraphs and T3: performing "style" transfer by regenerating a particular subgraph to match the characteristics of a different node or subgraph.
Aspect-based sentiment Analysis (ABSA) delves into understanding sentiments specific to distinct elements within textual content. It aims to analyze user-generated reviews to determine a) the target entity being reviewed, b) the high-level aspect to which it belongs, c) the sentiment words used to express the opinion, and d) the sentiment expressed toward the targets and the aspects. While various benchmark datasets have fostered advancements in ABSA, they often come with domain limitations and data granularity challenges. Addressing these, we introduce the OATS dataset, which encompasses three fresh domains and consists of 20,000 sentence-level quadruples and 13,000 review-level tuples. Our initiative seeks to bridge specific observed gaps: the recurrent focus on familiar domains like restaurants and laptops, limited data for intricate quadruple extraction tasks, and an occasional oversight of the synergy between sentence and review-level sentiments. Moreover, to elucidate OATS's potential and shed light on various ABSA subtasks that OATS can solve, we conducted in-domain and cross-domain experiments, establishing initial baselines. We hope the OATS dataset augments current resources, paving the way for an encompassing exploration of ABSA.
The 'pre-train, prompt, predict' paradigm of large language models (LLMs) has achieved remarkable success in open-domain question answering (OD-QA). However, few works explore this paradigm in the scenario of multi-document question answering (MD-QA), a task demanding a thorough understanding of the logical associations among the contents and structures of different documents. To fill this crucial gap, we propose a Knowledge Graph Prompting (KGP) method to formulate the right context in prompting LLMs for MD-QA, which consists of a graph construction module and a graph traversal module. For graph construction, we create a knowledge graph (KG) over multiple documents with nodes symbolizing passages or document structures (e.g., pages/tables), and edges denoting the semantic/lexical similarity between passages or intra-document structural relations. For graph traversal, we design an LM-guided graph traverser that navigates across nodes and gathers supporting passages assisting LLMs in MD-QA. The constructed graph serves as the global ruler that regulates the transitional space among passages and reduces retrieval latency. Concurrently, the LM-guided traverser acts as a local navigator that gathers pertinent context to progressively approach the question and guarantee retrieval quality. Extensive experiments underscore the efficacy of KGP for MD-QA, signifying the potential of leveraging graphs in enhancing the prompt design for LLMs. Our code is at https://github.com/YuWVandy/KG-LLM-MDQA.
Instruction tuning unlocks the superior capability of Large Language Models (LLM) to interact with humans. Furthermore, recent instruction-following datasets include images as visual inputs, collecting responses for image-based instructions. However, visual instruction-tuned models cannot comprehend textual details within images well. This work enhances the current visual instruction tuning pipeline with text-rich images (e.g., movie posters, book covers, etc.). Specifically, we first use publicly available OCR tools to collect results on 422K text-rich images from the LAION dataset. Moreover, we prompt text-only GPT-4 with recognized texts and image captions to generate 16K conversations, each containing question-answer pairs for text-rich images. By combining our collected data with previous multi-modal instruction-following data, our model, LLaVAR, substantially improves the LLaVA model's capability on text-based VQA datasets (up to 20% accuracy improvement) while achieving an accuracy of 91.42% on ScienceQA. The GPT-4-based instruction-following evaluation also demonstrates the improvement of our model on both natural images and text-rich images. Through qualitative analysis, LLaVAR shows promising interaction (e.g., reasoning, writing, and elaboration) skills with humans based on the latest real-world online content that combines text and images. We make our code/data/models publicly available at https://llavar.github.io/.
People read digital documents on a daily basis to share, exchange, and understand information in electronic settings. However, current document readers create a static, isolated reading experience, which does not support users' goals of gaining more knowledge and performing additional tasks through document interaction. In this work, we present our vision for the next-gen document reader that strives to enhance user understanding and create a more connected, trustworthy information experience. We describe 18 NLP-powered features to add to existing document readers and propose a novel plug-in marketplace that allows users to further customize their reading experience, as demonstrated through 3 exploratory UI prototypes available at https://github.com/catherinesyeh/nextgen-prototypes
In this work, we introduce a hypergraph representation learning framework called Hypergraph Neural Networks (HNN) that jointly learns hyperedge embeddings along with a set of hyperedge-dependent embeddings for each node in the hypergraph. HNN derives multiple embeddings per node in the hypergraph where each embedding for a node is dependent on a specific hyperedge of that node. Notably, HNN is accurate, data-efficient, flexible with many interchangeable components, and useful for a wide range of hypergraph learning tasks. We evaluate the effectiveness of the HNN framework for hyperedge prediction and hypergraph node classification. We find that HNN achieves an overall mean gain of 7.72% and 11.37% across all baseline models and graphs for hyperedge prediction and hypergraph node classification, respectively.
Learning fair graph representations for downstream applications is becoming increasingly important, but existing work has mostly focused on improving fairness at the global level by either modifying the graph structure or objective function without taking into account the local neighborhood of a node. In this work, we formally introduce the notion of neighborhood fairness and develop a computational framework for learning such locally fair embeddings. We argue that the notion of neighborhood fairness is more appropriate since GNN-based models operate at the local neighborhood level of a node. Our neighborhood fairness framework has two main components that are flexible for learning fair graph representations from arbitrary data: the first aims to construct fair neighborhoods for any arbitrary node in a graph and the second enables adaption of these fair neighborhoods to better capture certain application or data-dependent constraints, such as allowing neighborhoods to be more biased towards certain attributes or neighbors in the graph.Furthermore, while link prediction has been extensively studied, we are the first to investigate the graph representation learning task of fair link classification. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed neighborhood fairness framework for a variety of graph machine learning tasks including fair link prediction, link classification, and learning fair graph embeddings. Notably, our approach achieves not only better fairness but also increases the accuracy in the majority of cases across a wide variety of graphs, problem settings, and metrics.
Temporal networks model a variety of important phenomena involving timed interactions between entities. Existing methods for machine learning on temporal networks generally exhibit at least one of two limitations. First, time is assumed to be discretized, so if the time data is continuous, the user must determine the discretization and discard precise time information. Second, edge representations can only be calculated indirectly from the nodes, which may be suboptimal for tasks like edge classification. We present a simple method that avoids both shortcomings: construct the line graph of the network, which includes a node for each interaction, and weigh the edges of this graph based on the difference in time between interactions. From this derived graph, edge representations for the original network can be computed with efficient classical methods. The simplicity of this approach facilitates explicit theoretical analysis: we can constructively show the effectiveness of our method's representations for a natural synthetic model of temporal networks. Empirical results on real-world networks demonstrate our method's efficacy and efficiency on both edge classification and temporal link prediction.
Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is a natural language processing problem that requires analyzing user-generated reviews in order to determine: a) The target entity being reviewed, b) The high-level aspect to which it belongs, and c) The sentiment expressed toward the targets and the aspects. Numerous yet scattered corpora for ABSA make it difficult for researchers to quickly identify corpora best suited for a specific ABSA subtask. This study aims to present a database of corpora that can be used to train and assess autonomous ABSA systems. Additionally, we provide an overview of the major corpora concerning the various ABSA and its subtasks and highlight several corpus features that researchers should consider when selecting a corpus. We conclude that further large-scale ABSA corpora are required. Additionally, because each corpus is constructed differently, it is time-consuming for researchers to experiment with a novel ABSA algorithm on many corpora and often employ just one or a few corpora. The field would benefit from an agreement on a data standard for ABSA corpora. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current collection approaches and make recommendations for future ABSA dataset gathering.
In this paper, we introduce the online and streaming MAP inference and learning problems for Non-symmetric Determinantal Point Processes (NDPPs) where data points arrive in an arbitrary order and the algorithms are constrained to use a single-pass over the data as well as sub-linear memory. The online setting has an additional requirement of maintaining a valid solution at any point in time. For solving these new problems, we propose algorithms with theoretical guarantees, evaluate them on several real-world datasets, and show that they give comparable performance to state-of-the-art offline algorithms that store the entire data in memory and take multiple passes over it.