Challenges drive the state-of-the-art of automated medical image analysis. The quantity of public training data that they provide can limit the performance of their solutions. Public access to the training methodology for these solutions remains absent. This study implements the Type Three (T3) challenge format, which allows for training solutions on private data and guarantees reusable training methodologies. With T3, challenge organizers train a codebase provided by the participants on sequestered training data. T3 was implemented in the STOIC2021 challenge, with the goal of predicting from a computed tomography (CT) scan whether subjects had a severe COVID-19 infection, defined as intubation or death within one month. STOIC2021 consisted of a Qualification phase, where participants developed challenge solutions using 2000 publicly available CT scans, and a Final phase, where participants submitted their training methodologies with which solutions were trained on CT scans of 9724 subjects. The organizers successfully trained six of the eight Final phase submissions. The submitted codebases for training and running inference were released publicly. The winning solution obtained an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for discerning between severe and non-severe COVID-19 of 0.815. The Final phase solutions of all finalists improved upon their Qualification phase solutions.HSUXJM-TNZF9CHSUXJM-TNZF9C
The paper speculates about how ChatGPT-like systems can support the field of automated service composition and identifies new research areas to explore in order to take advantage of such tools in the field of service-oriented composition.
Actual real-world domains are characterised by uncertain situations in which acting and use of resources require embracing risk. Performing actions in such domains always entails costs of consuming some resource, such as time, money, or energy, where the knowledge about these costs can range from totally known to totally unknown and even unknowable probabilities of costs. Think of robotic domains, where actions and their costs are non-deterministic due to uncertain factors like obstacles. Choosing which action to perform considering its cost on the available resource requires taking a stance on risk. Thus, these domains call for not only planning under uncertainty but also planning while embracing risk. Taking Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning as a widely used planning technique in real-world applications, one can observe that existing approaches do not account for risk. That is, computing most probable or optimal plans using actions with single-valued costs is only enough to express risk neutrality. In this work, we postulate that HTN planning can become risk aware by considering expected utility theory, a representative concept of decision theory that enables choosing actions considering a probability distribution of their costs and a given risk attitude expressed using a utility function. In particular, we introduce a general framework for HTN planning that allows modelling risk and uncertainty using a probability distribution of action costs upon which we define risk-aware HTN planning as an approach that accounts for the different risk attitudes and allows computing plans that go beyond risk neutrality. In fact, we layout that computing risk-aware plans requires finding plans with the highest expected utility. Finally, we argue that it is possible for HTN planning agents to solve specialised risk-aware HTN planning problems by adapting some existing HTN planning approaches.
Hierarchies are the most common structure used to understand the world better. In galaxies, for instance, multiple-star systems are organised in a hierarchical system. Then, governmental and company organisations are structured using a hierarchy, while the Internet, which is used on a daily basis, has a space of domain names arranged hierarchically. Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) planning portrays information about the world and reasons to solve some of world's problems, Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning has been introduced almost 40 years ago to represent and deal with hierarchies. Its requirement for rich domain knowledge to characterise the world enables HTN planning to be very useful, but also to perform well. However, the history of almost 40 years obfuscates the current understanding of HTN planning in terms of accomplishments, planning models, similarities and differences among hierarchical planners, and its current and objective image. On top of these issues, attention attracts the ability of hierarchical planning to truly cope with the requirements of applications from the real world. We propose a framework-based approach to remedy this situation. First, we provide a basis for defining different formal models of hierarchical planning, and define two models that comprise a large portion of HTN planners. Second, we provide a set of concepts that helps to interpret HTN planners from the aspect of their search space. Then, we analyse and compare the planners based on a variety of properties organised in five segments, namely domain authoring, expressiveness, competence, performance and applicability. Furthermore, we select Web service composition as a real-world and current application, and classify and compare the approaches that employ HTN planning to solve the problem of service composition. Finally, we conclude with our findings and present directions for future work.
Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning uses task decomposition to plan for an executable sequence of actions as a solution to a problem. In order to reason effectively, an HTN planner needs expressive domain knowledge. For instance, a simplified HTN planning system such as JSHOP2 uses such expressivity and avoids some task interactions due to the increased complexity of the planning process. We address the possibility of simplifying the domain representation needed for an HTN planner to find good solutions, especially in real-world domains describing home and building automation environments. We extend the JSHOP2 planner to reason about task interaction that happens when task's effects are already achieved by other tasks. The planner then prunes some of the redundant searches that can occur due to the planning process's interleaving nature. We evaluate the original and our improved planner on two benchmark domains. We show that our planner behaves better by using simplified domain knowledge and outperforms JSHOP2 in a number of relevant cases.
We present a framework to analyze color documents of complex layout. In addition, no assumption is made on the layout. Our framework combines in a content-driven bottom-up approach two different sources of information: textual and spatial. To analyze the text, shallow natural language processing tools, such as taggers and partial parsers, are used. To infer relations of the logical layout we resort to a qualitative spatial calculus closely related to Allen's calculus. We evaluate the system against documents from a color journal and present the results of extracting the reading order from the journal's pages. In this case, our analysis is successful as it extracts the intended reading order from the document.
* Appeared in: J. Mariani and D. Harman (Eds.) Proceedings of RIAO'2000
Content-Based Multimedia Information Access, CID, 2000. pp. 266-275