How to automatically design better machine learning programs is an open problem within AutoML. While evolution has been a popular tool to search for better ML programs, using learning itself to guide the search has been less successful and less understood on harder problems but has the promise to dramatically increase the speed and final performance of the optimization process. We propose guiding evolution with a binary discriminator, trained online to distinguish which program is better given a pair of programs. The discriminator selects better programs without having to perform a costly evaluation and thus speed up the convergence of evolution. Our method can encode a wide variety of ML components including symbolic optimizers, neural architectures, RL loss functions, and symbolic regression equations with the same directed acyclic graph representation. By combining this representation with modern GNNs and an adaptive mutation strategy, we demonstrate our method can speed up evolution across a set of diverse problems including a 3.7x speedup on the symbolic search for ML optimizers and a 4x speedup for RL loss functions.
Language model agents (LMA) recently emerged as a promising paradigm on muti-step decision making tasks, often outperforming humans and other reinforcement learning agents. Despite the promise, their performance on real-world applications that often involve combinations of tasks is still underexplored. In this work, we introduce a new benchmark, called CompWoB -- 50 new compositional web automation tasks reflecting more realistic assumptions. We show that while existing prompted LMAs (gpt-3.5-turbo or gpt-4) achieve 94.0% average success rate on base tasks, their performance degrades to 24.9% success rate on compositional tasks. On the other hand, transferred LMAs (finetuned only on base tasks) show less generalization gap, dropping from 85.4% to 54.8%. By balancing data distribution across tasks, we train a new model, HTML-T5++, that surpasses human-level performance (95.2%) on MiniWoB, and achieves the best zero-shot performance on CompWoB (61.5%). While these highlight the promise of small-scale finetuned and transferred models for compositional generalization, their performance further degrades under different instruction compositions changing combinational order. In contrast to the recent remarkable success of LMA, our benchmark and detailed analysis emphasize the necessity of building LMAs that are robust and generalizable to task compositionality for real-world deployment.
We propose a framework for classifying the capabilities and behavior of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) models and their precursors. This framework introduces levels of AGI performance, generality, and autonomy. It is our hope that this framework will be useful in an analogous way to the levels of autonomous driving, by providing a common language to compare models, assess risks, and measure progress along the path to AGI. To develop our framework, we analyze existing definitions of AGI, and distill six principles that a useful ontology for AGI should satisfy. These principles include focusing on capabilities rather than mechanisms; separately evaluating generality and performance; and defining stages along the path toward AGI, rather than focusing on the endpoint. With these principles in mind, we propose 'Levels of AGI' based on depth (performance) and breadth (generality) of capabilities, and reflect on how current systems fit into this ontology. We discuss the challenging requirements for future benchmarks that quantify the behavior and capabilities of AGI models against these levels. Finally, we discuss how these levels of AGI interact with deployment considerations such as autonomy and risk, and emphasize the importance of carefully selecting Human-AI Interaction paradigms for responsible and safe deployment of highly capable AI systems.
Simulation is an essential tool to develop and benchmark autonomous vehicle planning software in a safe and cost-effective manner. However, realistic simulation requires accurate modeling of nuanced and complex multi-agent interactive behaviors. To address these challenges, we introduce Waymax, a new data-driven simulator for autonomous driving in multi-agent scenes, designed for large-scale simulation and testing. Waymax uses publicly-released, real-world driving data (e.g., the Waymo Open Motion Dataset) to initialize or play back a diverse set of multi-agent simulated scenarios. It runs entirely on hardware accelerators such as TPUs/GPUs and supports in-graph simulation for training, making it suitable for modern large-scale, distributed machine learning workflows. To support online training and evaluation, Waymax includes several learned and hard-coded behavior models that allow for realistic interaction within simulation. To supplement Waymax, we benchmark a suite of popular imitation and reinforcement learning algorithms with ablation studies on different design decisions, where we highlight the effectiveness of routes as guidance for planning agents and the ability of RL to overfit against simulated agents.
Pre-trained large language models (LLMs) have recently achieved better generalization and sample efficiency in autonomous web navigation. However, the performance on real-world websites has still suffered from (1) open domainness, (2) limited context length, and (3) lack of inductive bias on HTML. We introduce WebAgent, an LLM-driven agent that can complete the tasks on real websites following natural language instructions. WebAgent plans ahead by decomposing instructions into canonical sub-instructions, summarizes long HTML documents into task-relevant snippets, and acts on websites via generated Python programs from those. We design WebAgent with Flan-U-PaLM, for grounded code generation, and HTML-T5, new pre-trained LLMs for long HTML documents using local and global attention mechanisms and a mixture of long-span denoising objectives, for planning and summarization. We empirically demonstrate that our recipe improves the success on a real website by over 50%, and that HTML-T5 is the best model to solve HTML-based tasks; achieving 14.9% higher success rate than prior SoTA on the MiniWoB web navigation benchmark and better accuracy on offline task planning evaluation.
The advent of large language models (LLMs) has revolutionized natural language processing, enabling the generation of coherent and contextually relevant text. As LLMs increasingly power conversational agents, the synthesized personality embedded in these models by virtue of their training on large amounts of human-generated data draws attention. Since personality is an important factor determining the effectiveness of communication, we present a comprehensive method for administering validated psychometric tests and quantifying, analyzing, and shaping personality traits exhibited in text generated from widely-used LLMs. We find that: 1) personality simulated in the outputs of some LLMs (under specific prompting configurations) is reliable and valid; 2) evidence of reliability and validity of LLM-simulated personality is stronger for larger and instruction fine-tuned models; and 3) personality in LLM outputs can be shaped along desired dimensions to mimic specific personality profiles. We also discuss potential applications and ethical implications of our measurement and shaping framework, especially regarding responsible use of LLMs.
Machine learning is a prevalent approach to tame the complexity of design space exploration for domain-specific architectures. Using ML for design space exploration poses challenges. First, it's not straightforward to identify the suitable algorithm from an increasing pool of ML methods. Second, assessing the trade-offs between performance and sample efficiency across these methods is inconclusive. Finally, lack of a holistic framework for fair, reproducible, and objective comparison across these methods hinders progress of adopting ML-aided architecture design space exploration and impedes creating repeatable artifacts. To mitigate these challenges, we introduce ArchGym, an open-source gym and easy-to-extend framework that connects diverse search algorithms to architecture simulators. To demonstrate utility, we evaluate ArchGym across multiple vanilla and domain-specific search algorithms in designing custom memory controller, deep neural network accelerators, and custom SoC for AR/VR workloads, encompassing over 21K experiments. Results suggest that with unlimited samples, ML algorithms are equally favorable to meet user-defined target specification if hyperparameters are tuned; no solution is necessarily better than another (e.g., reinforcement learning vs. Bayesian methods). We coin the term hyperparameter lottery to describe the chance for a search algorithm to find an optimal design provided meticulously selected hyperparameters. The ease of data collection and aggregation in ArchGym facilitates research in ML-aided architecture design space exploration. As a case study, we show this advantage by developing a proxy cost model with an RMSE of 0.61% that offers a 2,000-fold reduction in simulation time. Code and data for ArchGym is available at https://bit.ly/ArchGym.
* International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA 2023)
Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated the potential to perform high-level planning. Yet, it remains a challenge for LLMs to comprehend low-level commands, such as joint angle targets or motor torques. This paper proposes an approach to use foot contact patterns as an interface that bridges human commands in natural language and a locomotion controller that outputs these low-level commands. This results in an interactive system for quadrupedal robots that allows the users to craft diverse locomotion behaviors flexibly. We contribute an LLM prompt design, a reward function, and a method to expose the controller to the feasible distribution of contact patterns. The results are a controller capable of achieving diverse locomotion patterns that can be transferred to real robot hardware. Compared with other design choices, the proposed approach enjoys more than 50% success rate in predicting the correct contact patterns and can solve 10 more tasks out of a total of 30 tasks. Our project site is: https://saytap.github.io.
Imitation learning (IL) is a simple and powerful way to use high-quality human driving data, which can be collected at scale, to identify driving preferences and produce human-like behavior. However, policies based on imitation learning alone often fail to sufficiently account for safety and reliability concerns. In this paper, we show how imitation learning combined with reinforcement learning using simple rewards can substantially improve the safety and reliability of driving policies over those learned from imitation alone. In particular, we use a combination of imitation and reinforcement learning to train a policy on over 100k miles of urban driving data, and measure its effectiveness in test scenarios grouped by different levels of collision risk. To our knowledge, this is the first application of a combined imitation and reinforcement learning approach in autonomous driving that utilizes large amounts of real-world human driving data.
Microprocessor architects are increasingly resorting to domain-specific customization in the quest for high-performance and energy-efficiency. As the systems grow in complexity, fine-tuning architectural parameters across multiple sub-systems (e.g., datapath, memory blocks in different hierarchies, interconnects, compiler optimization, etc.) quickly results in a combinatorial explosion of design space. This makes domain-specific customization an extremely challenging task. Prior work explores using reinforcement learning (RL) and other optimization methods to automatically explore the large design space. However, these methods have traditionally relied on single-agent RL/ML formulations. It is unclear how scalable single-agent formulations are as we increase the complexity of the design space (e.g., full stack System-on-Chip design). Therefore, we propose an alternative formulation that leverages Multi-Agent RL (MARL) to tackle this problem. The key idea behind using MARL is an observation that parameters across different sub-systems are more or less independent, thus allowing a decentralized role assigned to each agent. We test this hypothesis by designing domain-specific DRAM memory controller for several workload traces. Our evaluation shows that the MARL formulation consistently outperforms single-agent RL baselines such as Proximal Policy Optimization and Soft Actor-Critic over different target objectives such as low power and latency. To this end, this work opens the pathway for new and promising research in MARL solutions for hardware architecture search.