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"speech": models, code, and papers

Improving Trajectory Modelling for DNN-based Speech Synthesis by using Stacked Bottleneck Features and Minimum Generation Error Training

Apr 05, 2016
Zhizheng Wu, Simon King

We propose two novel techniques --- stacking bottleneck features and minimum generation error training criterion --- to improve the performance of deep neural network (DNN)-based speech synthesis. The techniques address the related issues of frame-by-frame independence and ignorance of the relationship between static and dynamic features, within current typical DNN-based synthesis frameworks. Stacking bottleneck features, which are an acoustically--informed linguistic representation, provides an efficient way to include more detailed linguistic context at the input. The minimum generation error training criterion minimises overall output trajectory error across an utterance, rather than minimising the error per frame independently, and thus takes into account the interaction between static and dynamic features. The two techniques can be easily combined to further improve performance. We present both objective and subjective results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. The subjective results show that combining the two techniques leads to significantly more natural synthetic speech than from conventional DNN or long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network (RNN) systems.

* submitted to IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing 2016 (AQ) 

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STRATA: Word Boundaries & Phoneme Recognition From Continuous Urdu Speech using Transfer Learning, Attention, & Data Augmentation

Apr 16, 2022
Saad Naeem, Omer Beg

Phoneme recognition is a largely unsolved problem in NLP, especially for low-resource languages like Urdu. The systems that try to extract the phonemes from audio speech require hand-labeled phonetic transcriptions. This requires expert linguists to annotate speech data with its relevant phonetic representation which is both an expensive and a tedious task. In this paper, we propose STRATA, a framework for supervised phoneme recognition that overcomes the data scarcity issue for low resource languages using a seq2seq neural architecture integrated with transfer learning, attention mechanism, and data augmentation. STRATA employs transfer learning to reduce the network loss in half. It uses attention mechanism for word boundaries and frame alignment detection which further reduces the network loss by 4% and is able to identify the word boundaries with 92.2% accuracy. STRATA uses various data augmentation techniques to further reduce the loss by 1.5% and is more robust towards new signals both in terms of generalization and accuracy. STRATA is able to achieve a Phoneme Error Rate of 16.5% and improves upon the state of the art by 1.1% for TIMIT dataset (English) and 11.5% for CSaLT dataset (Urdu).

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[email protected]: Multilingual Code-Mixed Hope Speech Detection using Cross-lingual Representation Learner

Feb 28, 2021
Eftekhar Hossain, Omar Sharif, Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

In recent years, several systems have been developed to regulate the spread of negativity and eliminate aggressive, offensive or abusive contents from the online platforms. Nevertheless, a limited number of researches carried out to identify positive, encouraging and supportive contents. In this work, our goal is to identify whether a social media post/comment contains hope speech or not. We propose three distinct models to identify hope speech in English, Tamil and Malayalam language to serve this purpose. To attain this goal, we employed various machine learning (support vector machine, logistic regression, ensemble), deep learning (convolutional neural network + long short term memory) and transformer (m-BERT, Indic-BERT, XLNet, XLM-Roberta) based methods. Results indicate that XLM-Roberta outdoes all other techniques by gaining a weighted $f_1$-score of $0.93$, $0.60$ and $0.85$ respectively for English, Tamil and Malayalam language. Our team has achieved $1^{st}$, $2^{nd}$ and $1^{st}$ rank in these three tasks respectively.

* Winner LT-EDI workshop EACL-2021, 7 pages 

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The Enemy Among Us: Detecting Hate Speech with Threats Based 'Othering' Language Embeddings

Mar 08, 2018
Wafa Alorainy, Pete Burnap, Han Liu, Matthew Williams

Offensive or antagonistic language targeted at individuals and social groups based on their personal characteristics (also known as cyber hate speech or cyberhate) has been frequently posted and widely circulated viathe World Wide Web. This can be considered as a key risk factor for individual and societal tension linked toregional instability. Automated Web-based cyberhate detection is important for observing and understandingcommunity and regional societal tension - especially in online social networks where posts can be rapidlyand widely viewed and disseminated. While previous work has involved using lexicons, bags-of-words orprobabilistic language parsing approaches, they often suffer from a similar issue which is that cyberhate can besubtle and indirect - thus depending on the occurrence of individual words or phrases can lead to a significantnumber of false negatives, providing inaccurate representation of the trends in cyberhate. This problemmotivated us to challenge thinking around the representation of subtle language use, such as references toperceived threats from "the other" including immigration or job prosperity in a hateful context. We propose anovel framework that utilises language use around the concept of "othering" and intergroup threat theory toidentify these subtleties and we implement a novel classification method using embedding learning to computesemantic distances between parts of speech considered to be part of an "othering" narrative. To validate ourapproach we conduct several experiments on different types of cyberhate, namely religion, disability, race andsexual orientation, with F-measure scores for classifying hateful instances obtained through applying ourmodel of 0.93, 0.86, 0.97 and 0.98 respectively, providing a significant improvement in classifier accuracy overthe state-of-the-art

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AtteSTNet -- An attention and subword tokenization based approach for code-switched Hindi-English hate speech detection

Dec 10, 2021
Vedangi Wagh, Geet Shingi

Recent advancements in technology have led to a boost in social media usage which has ultimately led to large amounts of user-generated data which also includes hateful and offensive speech. The language used in social media is often a combination of English and the native language in the region. In India, Hindi is used predominantly and is often code-switched with English, giving rise to the Hinglish (Hindi+English) language. Various approaches have been made in the past to classify the code-mixed Hinglish hate speech using different machine learning and deep learning-based techniques. However, these techniques make use of recurrence on convolution mechanisms which are computationally expensive and have high memory requirements. Past techniques also make use of complex data processing making the existing techniques very complex and non-sustainable to change in data. We propose a much simpler approach which is not only at par with these complex networks but also exceeds performance with the use of subword tokenization algorithms like BPE and Unigram along with multi-head attention-based technique giving an accuracy of 87.41% and F1 score of 0.851 on standard datasets. Efficient use of BPE and Unigram algorithms help handle the non-conventional Hinglish vocabulary making our technique simple, efficient and sustainable to use in the real world.

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Learning from Past Mistakes: Improving Automatic Speech Recognition Output via Noisy-Clean Phrase Context Modeling

Feb 07, 2018
Prashanth Gurunath Shivakumar, Haoqi Li, Kevin Knight, Panayiotis Georgiou

Automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems lack joint optimization during decoding over the acoustic, lexical and language models; for instance the ASR will often prune words due to acoustics using short-term context, prior to rescoring with long-term context. In this work we model the automated speech transcription process as a noisy transformation channel and propose an error correction system that can learn from the aggregate errors of all the independent modules constituting the ASR. The proposed system can exploit long-term context using a neural network language model and can better choose between existing ASR output possibilities as well as re-introduce previously pruned and unseen (out-of-vocabulary) phrases. The system provides significant corrections under poorly performing ASR conditions without degrading any accurate transcriptions. The proposed system can thus be independently optimized and post-process the output of even a highly optimized ASR. We show that the system consistently provides improvements over the baseline ASR. We also show that it performs better when used on out-of-domain and mismatched test data and under high-error ASR conditions. Finally, an extensive analysis of the type of errors corrected by our system is presented.

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Fast-MD: Fast Multi-Decoder End-to-End Speech Translation with Non-Autoregressive Hidden Intermediates

Sep 27, 2021
Hirofumi Inaguma, Siddharth Dalmia, Brian Yan, Shinji Watanabe

The multi-decoder (MD) end-to-end speech translation model has demonstrated high translation quality by searching for better intermediate automatic speech recognition (ASR) decoder states as hidden intermediates (HI). It is a two-pass decoding model decomposing the overall task into ASR and machine translation sub-tasks. However, the decoding speed is not fast enough for real-world applications because it conducts beam search for both sub-tasks during inference. We propose Fast-MD, a fast MD model that generates HI by non-autoregressive (NAR) decoding based on connectionist temporal classification (CTC) outputs followed by an ASR decoder. We investigated two types of NAR HI: (1) parallel HI by using an autoregressive Transformer ASR decoder and (2) masked HI by using Mask-CTC, which combines CTC and the conditional masked language model. To reduce a mismatch in the ASR decoder between teacher-forcing during training and conditioning on CTC outputs during testing, we also propose sampling CTC outputs during training. Experimental evaluations on three corpora show that Fast-MD achieved about 2x and 4x faster decoding speed than that of the na\"ive MD model on GPU and CPU with comparable translation quality. Adopting the Conformer encoder and intermediate CTC loss further boosts its quality without sacrificing decoding speed.

* Accepted at IEEE ASRU 2021 

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Long-Term, in-the-Wild Study of Feedback about Speech Intelligibility for K-12 Students Attending Class via a Telepresence Robot

Aug 24, 2021
Matthew Rueben, Mohammad Syed, Emily London, Mark Camarena, Eunsook Shin, Yulun Zhang, Timothy S. Wang, Thomas R. Groechel, Rhianna Lee, Maja J. Matarić

Telepresence robots offer presence, embodiment, and mobility to remote users, making them promising options for homebound K-12 students. It is difficult, however, for robot operators to know how well they are being heard in remote and noisy classroom environments. One solution is to estimate the operator's speech intelligibility to their listeners in order to provide feedback about it to the operator. This work contributes the first evaluation of a speech intelligibility feedback system for homebound K-12 students attending class remotely. In our four long-term, in-the-wild deployments we found that students speak at different volumes instead of adjusting the robot's volume, and that detailed audio calibration and network latency feedback are needed. We also contribute the first findings about the types and frequencies of multimodal comprehension cues given to homebound students by listeners in the classroom. By annotating and categorizing over 700 cues, we found that the most common cue modalities were conversation turn timing and verbal content. Conversation turn timing cues occurred more frequently overall, whereas verbal content cues contained more information and might be the most frequent modality for negative cues. Our work provides recommendations for telepresence systems that could intervene to ensure that remote users are being heard.

* Proceedings of the 2021 International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI '21), October 18-22, 2021, Montreal, QC, Canada. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 10 pages 

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Hate Towards the Political Opponent: A Twitter Corpus Study of the 2020 US Elections on the Basis of Offensive Speech and Stance Detection

Mar 02, 2021
Lara Grimminger, Roman Klinger

The 2020 US Elections have been, more than ever before, characterized by social media campaigns and mutual accusations. We investigate in this paper if this manifests also in online communication of the supporters of the candidates Biden and Trump, by uttering hateful and offensive communication. We formulate an annotation task, in which we join the tasks of hateful/offensive speech detection and stance detection, and annotate 3000 Tweets from the campaign period, if they express a particular stance towards a candidate. Next to the established classes of favorable and against, we add mixed and neutral stances and also annotate if a candidate is mentioned without an opinion expression. Further, we annotate if the tweet is written in an offensive style. This enables us to analyze if supporters of Joe Biden and the Democratic Party communicate differently than supporters of Donald Trump and the Republican Party. A BERT baseline classifier shows that the detection if somebody is a supporter of a candidate can be performed with high quality (.89 F1 for Trump and .91 F1 for Biden), while the detection that somebody expresses to be against a candidate is more challenging (.79 F1 and .64 F1, respectively). The automatic detection of hate/offensive speech remains challenging (with .53 F1). Our corpus is publicly available and constitutes a novel resource for computational modelling of offensive language under consideration of stances.

* WASSA 2021 at EACL 2021 

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Time-Frequency Localization Using Deep Convolutional Maxout Neural Network in Persian Speech Recognition

Sep 06, 2021
Arash Dehghani, Seyyed Ali Seyyedsalehi

In this paper, a CNN-based structure for time-frequency localization of information in the ASR acoustic model is proposed for Persian speech recognition. Research has shown that the receptive fields' spectrotemporal plasticity of some neurons in mammals' primary auditory cortex and midbrain makes localization facilities that improve recognition performance. As biosystems have inspired many man-maid systems because of their high efficiency and performance, in the last few years, much work has been done to localize time-frequency information in ASR systems, which has used the spatial or temporal immutability properties of methods such as TDNN, CNN, and LSTM-RNN. However, most of these models have large parameter volumes and are challenging to train. We have presented a structure called Time-Frequency Convolutional Maxout Neural Network (TFCMNN) in which two parallel time-domain and frequency-domain 1D-CMNN are used. These two blocks are applied simultaneously but independently to the spectrogram, and then their output is concatenated and applied jointly to a fully connected Maxout network for classification. To improve the performance of this structure, we have used newly developed methods and models such as Dropout, maxout, and weight normalization. Two sets of experiments were designed and implemented on the Persian FARSDAT speech dataset to evaluate the performance of this model compared to conventional 1D-CMNN models. According to the experimental results, the average recognition score of TFCMNN models is about 1.6% higher than the average of conventional models. In addition, the average training time of the TFCMNN models is about 17 hours lower than the average training time of traditional models. Therefore, as proven in other sources, we can say that time-frequency localization in ASR systems increases system accuracy and speeds up the training process.

* 27 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables 

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