Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!

Chrome logo  Add to Chrome

Firefox logo Add to Firefox

"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Explanations for Temporal Recommendations

Jul 17, 2018
Homanga Bharadhwaj, Shruti Joshi

Recommendation systems are an integral part of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and have become increasingly important in the growing age of commercialization in AI. Deep learning (DL) techniques for recommendation systems (RS) provide powerful latent-feature models for effective recommendation but suffer from the major drawback of being non-interpretable. In this paper we describe a framework for explainable temporal recommendations in a DL model. We consider an LSTM based Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) architecture for recommendation and a neighbourhood-based scheme for generating explanations in the model. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through experiments on the Netflix dataset by jointly optimizing for both prediction accuracy and explainability.

* Homanga Bharadhwaj and Shruti Joshi. "Explanations for Temporal Recommendations" IJCAI-18 Workshop on Explainable AI (XAI). 2018 
* Accepted at the XAI Workshop in IJCAI/ECAI 2018 

Movie Recommender System using critic consensus

Dec 22, 2021
A Nayan Varma, Kedareshwara Petluri

Recommendation systems are perhaps one of the most important agents for industry growth through the modern Internet world. Previous approaches on recommendation systems include collaborative filtering and content based filtering recommendation systems. These 2 methods are disjointed in nature and require the continuous storage of user preferences for a better recommendation. To provide better integration of the two processes, we propose a hybrid recommendation system based on the integration of collaborative and content-based content, taking into account the top critic consensus and movie rating score. We would like to present a novel model that recommends movies based on the combination of user preferences and critical consensus scores.

* 4 pages, IEEE 2021 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication and Control (ICAC3'21) 7thEdition (3rd and 4th December 2021) 

Towards Knowledge-Based Recommender Dialog System

Sep 03, 2019
Qibin Chen, Junyang Lin, Yichang Zhang, Ming Ding, Yukuo Cen, Hongxia Yang, Jie Tang

In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end framework called KBRD, which stands for Knowledge-Based Recommender Dialog System. It integrates the recommender system and the dialog generation system. The dialog system can enhance the performance of the recommendation system by introducing knowledge-grounded information about users' preferences, and the recommender system can improve that of the dialog generation system by providing recommendation-aware vocabulary bias. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed model has significant advantages over the baselines in both the evaluation of dialog generation and recommendation. A series of analyses show that the two systems can bring mutual benefits to each other, and the introduced knowledge contributes to both their performances.

* To appear in EMNLP 2019 

Fairness-Aware Explainable Recommendation over Knowledge Graphs

Jun 28, 2020
Zuohui Fu, Yikun Xian, Ruoyuan Gao, Jieyu Zhao, Qiaoying Huang, Yingqiang Ge, Shuyuan Xu, Shijie Geng, Chirag Shah, Yongfeng Zhang, Gerard de Melo

There has been growing attention on fairness considerations recently, especially in the context of intelligent decision making systems. Explainable recommendation systems, in particular, may suffer from both explanation bias and performance disparity. In this paper, we analyze different groups of users according to their level of activity, and find that bias exists in recommendation performance between different groups. We show that inactive users may be more susceptible to receiving unsatisfactory recommendations, due to insufficient training data for the inactive users, and that their recommendations may be biased by the training records of more active users, due to the nature of collaborative filtering, which leads to an unfair treatment by the system. We propose a fairness constrained approach via heuristic re-ranking to mitigate this unfairness problem in the context of explainable recommendation over knowledge graphs. We experiment on several real-world datasets with state-of-the-art knowledge graph-based explainable recommendation algorithms. The promising results show that our algorithm is not only able to provide high-quality explainable recommendations, but also reduces the recommendation unfairness in several respects.


Learning Post-Hoc Causal Explanations for Recommendation

Jun 30, 2020
Shuyuan Xu, Yunqi Li, Shuchang Liu, Zuohui Fu, Yongfeng Zhang

State-of-the-art recommender systems have the ability to generate high-quality recommendations, but usually cannot provide intuitive explanations to humans due to the usage of black-box prediction models. The lack of transparency has highlighted the critical importance of improving the explainability of recommender systems. In this paper, we propose to extract causal rules from the user interaction history as post-hoc explanations for the black-box sequential recommendation mechanisms, whilst maintain the predictive accuracy of the recommendation model. Our approach firstly achieves counterfactual examples with the aid of a perturbation model, and then extracts personalized causal relationships for the recommendation model through a causal rule mining algorithm. Experiments are conducted on several state-of-the-art sequential recommendation models and real-world datasets to verify the performance of our model on generating causal explanations. Meanwhile, We evaluate the discovered causal explanations in terms of quality and fidelity, which show that compared with conventional association rules, causal rules can provide personalized and more effective explanations for the behavior of black-box recommendation models.


Measuring Recommender System Effects with Simulated Users

Jan 12, 2021
Sirui Yao, Yoni Halpern, Nithum Thain, Xuezhi Wang, Kang Lee, Flavien Prost, Ed H. Chi, Jilin Chen, Alex Beutel

Imagine a food recommender system -- how would we check if it is \emph{causing} and fostering unhealthy eating habits or merely reflecting users' interests? How much of a user's experience over time with a recommender is caused by the recommender system's choices and biases, and how much is based on the user's preferences and biases? Popularity bias and filter bubbles are two of the most well-studied recommender system biases, but most of the prior research has focused on understanding the system behavior in a single recommendation step. How do these biases interplay with user behavior, and what types of user experiences are created from repeated interactions? In this work, we offer a simulation framework for measuring the impact of a recommender system under different types of user behavior. Using this simulation framework, we can (a) isolate the effect of the recommender system from the user preferences, and (b) examine how the system performs not just on average for an "average user" but also the extreme experiences under atypical user behavior. As part of the simulation framework, we propose a set of evaluation metrics over the simulations to understand the recommender system's behavior. Finally, we present two empirical case studies -- one on traditional collaborative filtering in MovieLens and one on a large-scale production recommender system -- to understand how popularity bias manifests over time.

* Presented at Second Workshop on Fairness, Accountability, Transparency, Ethics and Society on the Web (FATES 2020) with the title "Beyond Next Step Bias: Trajectory Simulation for Understanding Recommender System Behavior" 

Action-conditional Sequence Modeling for Recommendation

Sep 07, 2018
Elena Smirnova

In many online applications interactions between a user and a web-service are organized in a sequential way, e.g., user browsing an e-commerce website. In this setting, recommendation system acts throughout user navigation by showing items. Previous works have addressed this recommendation setup through the task of predicting the next item user will interact with. In particular, Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) has been shown to achieve substantial improvements over collaborative filtering baselines. In this paper, we consider interactions triggered by the recommendations of deployed recommender system in addition to browsing behavior. Indeed, it is reported that in online services interactions with recommendations represent up to 30\% of total interactions. Moreover, in practice, recommender system can greatly influence user behavior by promoting specific items. In this paper, we extend the RNN modeling framework by taking into account user interaction with recommended items. We propose and evaluate RNN architectures that consist of the recommendation action module and the state-action fusion module. Using real-world large-scale datasets we demonstrate improved performance on the next item prediction task compared to the baselines.


Macro-optimization of email recommendation response rates harnessing individual activity levels and group affinity trends

Sep 20, 2016
Mohammed Korayem, Khalifeh Aljadda, Trey Grainger

Recommendation emails are among the best ways to re-engage with customers after they have left a website. While on-site recommendation systems focus on finding the most relevant items for a user at the moment (right item), email recommendations add two critical additional dimensions: who to send recommendations to (right person) and when to send them (right time). It is critical that a recommendation email system not send too many emails to too many users in too short of a time-window, as users may unsubscribe from future emails or become desensitized and ignore future emails if they receive too many. Also, email service providers may mark such emails as spam if too many of their users are contacted in a short time-window. Optimizing email recommendation systems such that they can yield a maximum response rate for a minimum number of email sends is thus critical for the long-term performance of such a system. In this paper, we present a novel recommendation email system that not only generates recommendations, but which also leverages a combination of individual user activity data, as well as the behavior of the group to which they belong, in order to determine each user's likelihood to respond to any given set of recommendations within a given time period. In doing this, we have effectively created a meta-recommendation system which recommends sets of recommendations in order to optimize the aggregate response rate of the entire system. The proposed technique has been applied successfully within CareerBuilder's job recommendation email system to generate a 50\% increase in total conversions while also decreasing sent emails by 72%

* The 15th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (IEEE ICMLA'16) , 2016 
* This version is accepted as regular paper in The 15th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (IEEE ICMLA'16) . pre-camera ready version 

Utilizing FastText for Venue Recommendation

May 14, 2020
Makbule Gulcin Ozsoy

Venue recommendation systems model the past interactions (i.e., check-ins) of the users and recommend venues. Traditional recommendation systems employ collaborative filtering, content-based filtering or matrix factorization. Recently, vector space embedding and deep learning algorithms are also used for recommendation. In this work, I propose a method for recommending top-k venues by utilizing the sequentiality feature of check-ins and a recent vector space embedding method, namely the FastText. Our proposed method; forms groups of check-ins, learns the vector space representations of the venues and utilizes the learned embeddings to make venue recommendations. I measure the performance of the proposed method using a Foursquare check-in dataset.The results show that the proposed method performs better than the state-of-the-art methods.