Large language models (LLMs) are capable of answering knowledge-intensive complex questions with chain-of-thought (CoT) reasoning. However, they tend to generate factually incorrect reasoning steps when the required knowledge is not available or up-to-date in models' parameters. Recent works turn to retrieving external knowledge to augment CoT reasoning. Despite being promising, these chain-based methods suffer from: 1) Negative retrieval. Unnecessary or incorrect retrieval may mislead the reasoning; 2) Limited sight. Lacking the ability to look backward or forward, a local error in one step will propagate along the chain. In this paper, we propose a novel approach: Probabilistic Tree-of-thought Reasoning (ProbTree). First, LLMs translate a complex question into a query tree, in which each non-root node denotes a sub-question of its parent node. Then, probabilistic reasoning is conducted over the tree, by solving questions from leaf to root considering the confidence of both question decomposing and answering. During reasoning, for leaf nodes, LLMs choose a more confident answer from Closed-book QA that employs parametric knowledge and Open-book QA that employs retrieved external knowledge, thus eliminating the negative retrieval problem. For non-leaf nodes, with the hierarchical structure, LLMs have broader sights and are able to globally reason with the information from child nodes, thus recovering from local errors. The experiments on three Complex QA datasets under the open-domain setting show that our approach outperforms SOTA methods significantly, demonstrating the effect of probabilistic tree-of-thought reasoning.
Survival analysis plays a crucial role in many healthcare decisions, where the risk prediction for the events of interest can support an informative outlook for a patient's medical journey. Given the existence of data censoring, an effective way of survival analysis is to enforce the pairwise temporal concordance between censored and observed data, aiming to utilize the time interval before censoring as partially observed time-to-event labels for supervised learning. Although existing studies mostly employed ranking methods to pursue an ordering objective, contrastive methods which learn a discriminative embedding by having data contrast against each other, have not been explored thoroughly for survival analysis. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel Ontology-aware Temporality-based Contrastive Survival (OTCSurv) analysis framework that utilizes survival durations from both censored and observed data to define temporal distinctiveness and construct negative sample pairs with adjustable hardness for contrastive learning. Specifically, we first use an ontological encoder and a sequential self-attention encoder to represent the longitudinal EHR data with rich contexts. Second, we design a temporal contrastive loss to capture varying survival durations in a supervised setting through a hardness-aware negative sampling mechanism. Last, we incorporate the contrastive task into the time-to-event predictive task with multiple loss components. We conduct extensive experiments using a large EHR dataset to forecast the risk of hospitalized patients who are in danger of developing acute kidney injury (AKI), a critical and urgent medical condition. The effectiveness and explainability of the proposed model are validated through comprehensive quantitative and qualitative studies.
* This paper has been accepted for publication at the CIKM 2023
Teaching assistants have played essential roles in the long history of education. However, few MOOC platforms are providing human or virtual teaching assistants to support learning for massive online students due to the complexity of real-world online education scenarios and the lack of training data. In this paper, we present a virtual MOOC teaching assistant, LittleMu with minimum labeled training data, to provide question answering and chit-chat services. Consisting of two interactive modules of heterogeneous retrieval and language model prompting, LittleMu first integrates structural, semi- and unstructured knowledge sources to support accurate answers for a wide range of questions. Then, we design delicate demonstrations named "Chain of Teach" prompts to exploit the large-scale pre-trained model to handle complex uncollected questions. Except for question answering, we develop other educational services such as knowledge-grounded chit-chat. We test the system's performance via both offline evaluation and online deployment. Since May 2020, our LittleMu system has served over 80,000 users with over 300,000 queries from over 500 courses on XuetangX MOOC platform, which continuously contributes to a more convenient and fair education. Our code, services, and dataset will be available at https://github.com/THU-KEG/VTA.
We present Visual Knowledge oriented Programming platform (VisKoP), a knowledge base question answering (KBQA) system that integrates human into the loop to edit and debug the knowledge base (KB) queries. VisKoP not only provides a neural program induction module, which converts natural language questions into knowledge oriented program language (KoPL), but also maps KoPL programs into graphical elements. KoPL programs can be edited with simple graphical operators, such as dragging to add knowledge operators and slot filling to designate operator arguments. Moreover, VisKoP provides auto-completion for its knowledge base schema and users can easily debug the KoPL program by checking its intermediate results. To facilitate the practical KBQA on a million-entity-level KB, we design a highly efficient KoPL execution engine for the back-end. Experiment results show that VisKoP is highly efficient and user interaction can fix a large portion of wrong KoPL programs to acquire the correct answer. The VisKoP online demo https://demoviskop.xlore.cn (Stable release of this paper) and https://viskop.xlore.cn (Beta release with new features), highly efficient KoPL engine https://pypi.org/project/kopl-engine, and screencast video https://youtu.be/zAbJtxFPTXo are now publicly available.
Deep text understanding, which requires the connections between a given document and prior knowledge beyond its text, has been highlighted by many benchmarks in recent years. However, these benchmarks have encountered two major limitations. On the one hand, most of them require human annotation of knowledge, which leads to limited knowledge coverage. On the other hand, they usually use choices or spans in the texts as the answers, which results in narrow answer space. To overcome these limitations, we build a new challenging benchmark named KoRc in this paper. Compared with previous benchmarks, KoRC has two advantages, i.e., broad knowledge coverage and flexible answer format. Specifically, we utilize massive knowledge bases to guide annotators or large language models (LLMs) to construct knowledgable questions. Moreover, we use labels in knowledge bases rather than spans or choices as the final answers. We test state-of-the-art models on KoRC and the experimental results show that the strongest baseline only achieves 68.3% and 30.0% F1 measure in the in-distribution and out-of-distribution test set, respectively. These results indicate that deep text understanding is still an unsolved challenge. The benchmark dataset, leaderboard, and baseline methods are released in https://github.com/THU-KEG/KoRC.
The unprecedented performance of large language models (LLMs) necessitates improvements in evaluations. Rather than merely exploring the breadth of LLM abilities, we believe meticulous and thoughtful designs are essential to thorough, unbiased, and applicable evaluations. Given the importance of world knowledge to LLMs, we construct a Knowledge-oriented LLM Assessment benchmark (KoLA), in which we carefully design three crucial factors: (1) For ability modeling, we mimic human cognition to form a four-level taxonomy of knowledge-related abilities, covering $19$ tasks. (2) For data, to ensure fair comparisons, we use both Wikipedia, a corpus prevalently pre-trained by LLMs, along with continuously collected emerging corpora, aiming to evaluate the capacity to handle unseen data and evolving knowledge. (3) For evaluation criteria, we adopt a contrastive system, including overall standard scores for better numerical comparability across tasks and models and a unique self-contrast metric for automatically evaluating knowledge hallucination. We evaluate $21$ open-source and commercial LLMs and obtain some intriguing findings. The KoLA dataset and open-participation leaderboard are publicly released at https://kola.xlore.cn and will be continuously updated to provide references for developing LLMs and knowledge-related systems.
With ChatGPT under the spotlight, utilizing large language models (LLMs) for academic writing has drawn a significant amount of discussions and concerns in the community. While substantial research efforts have been stimulated for detecting LLM-Generated Content (LLM-content), most of the attempts are still in the early stage of exploration. In this paper, we present a holistic investigation of detecting LLM-generate academic writing, by providing a dataset, evidence, and algorithms, in order to inspire more community effort to address the concern of LLM academic misuse. We first present GPABenchmark, a benchmarking dataset of 600,000 samples of human-written, GPT-written, GPT-completed, and GPT-polished abstracts of research papers in CS, physics, and humanities and social sciences (HSS). We show that existing open-source and commercial GPT detectors provide unsatisfactory performance on GPABenchmark, especially for GPT-polished text. Moreover, through a user study of 150+ participants, we show that it is highly challenging for human users, including experienced faculty members and researchers, to identify GPT-generated abstracts. We then present CheckGPT, a novel LLM-content detector consisting of a general representation module and an attentive-BiLSTM classification module, which is accurate, transferable, and interpretable. Experimental results show that CheckGPT achieves an average classification accuracy of 98% to 99% for the task-specific discipline-specific detectors and the unified detectors. CheckGPT is also highly transferable that, without tuning, it achieves ~90% accuracy in new domains, such as news articles, while a model tuned with approximately 2,000 samples in the target domain achieves ~98% accuracy. Finally, we demonstrate the explainability insights obtained from CheckGPT to reveal the key behaviors of how LLM generates texts.
Student modeling, the task of inferring a student's learning characteristics through their interactions with coursework, is a fundamental issue in intelligent education. Although the recent attempts from knowledge tracing and cognitive diagnosis propose several promising directions for improving the usability and effectiveness of current models, the existing public datasets are still insufficient to meet the need for these potential solutions due to their ignorance of complete exercising contexts, fine-grained concepts, and cognitive labels. In this paper, we present MoocRadar, a fine-grained, multi-aspect knowledge repository consisting of 2,513 exercise questions, 5,600 knowledge concepts, and over 12 million behavioral records. Specifically, we propose a framework to guarantee a high-quality and comprehensive annotation of fine-grained concepts and cognitive labels. The statistical and experimental results indicate that our dataset provides the basis for the future improvements of existing methods. Moreover, to support the convenient usage for researchers, we release a set of tools for data querying, model adaption, and even the extension of our repository, which are now available at https://github.com/THU-KEG/MOOC-Radar.
We present GLM-Dialog, a large-scale language model (LLM) with 10B parameters capable of knowledge-grounded conversation in Chinese using a search engine to access the Internet knowledge. GLM-Dialog offers a series of applicable techniques for exploiting various external knowledge including both helpful and noisy knowledge, enabling the creation of robust knowledge-grounded dialogue LLMs with limited proper datasets. To evaluate the GLM-Dialog more fairly, we also propose a novel evaluation method to allow humans to converse with multiple deployed bots simultaneously and compare their performance implicitly instead of explicitly rating using multidimensional metrics.Comprehensive evaluations from automatic to human perspective demonstrate the advantages of GLM-Dialog comparing with existing open source Chinese dialogue models. We release both the model checkpoint and source code, and also deploy it as a WeChat application to interact with users. We offer our evaluation platform online in an effort to prompt the development of open source models and reliable dialogue evaluation systems. The additional easy-to-use toolkit that consists of short text entity linking, query generation, and helpful knowledge classification is also released to enable diverse applications. All the source code is available on Github.
Knowledge graphs, as the cornerstone of many AI applications, usually face serious incompleteness problems. In recent years, there have been many efforts to study automatic knowledge graph completion (KGC), most of which use existing knowledge to infer new knowledge. However, in our experiments, we find that not all relations can be obtained by inference, which constrains the performance of existing models. To alleviate this problem, we propose a new model based on information retrieval and reading comprehension, namely IR4KGC. Specifically, we pre-train a knowledge-based information retrieval module that can retrieve documents related to the triples to be completed. Then, the retrieved documents are handed over to the reading comprehension module to generate the predicted answers. In experiments, we find that our model can well solve relations that cannot be inferred from existing knowledge, and achieve good results on KGC datasets.