Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

With over 200 million published academic documents and millions of new documents being written each year, academic researchers face the challenge of searching for information within this vast corpus. However, existing retrieval systems struggle to understand the semantics and domain knowledge present in academic papers. In this work, we demonstrate that by utilizing large language models, a document retrieval system can achieve advanced semantic understanding capabilities, significantly outperforming existing systems. Our approach involves training the retriever and reranker using domain-specific data generated by large language models. Additionally, we utilize large language models to identify candidates from the references of retrieved papers to further enhance the performance. We use a test set annotated by academic researchers in the fields of quantum physics and computer vision to evaluate our system's performance. The results show that DocReLM achieves a Top 10 accuracy of 44.12% in computer vision, compared to Google Scholar's 15.69%, and an increase to 36.21% in quantum physics, while that of Google Scholar is 12.96%.

Via

Yifei Cheng, Li Shen, Linli Xu, Xun Qian, Shiwei Wu, Yiming Zhou, Tie Zhang, Dacheng Tao, Enhong Chen

Gradient compression with error compensation has attracted significant attention with the target of reducing the heavy communication overhead in distributed learning. However, existing compression methods either perform only unidirectional compression in one iteration with higher communication cost, or bidirectional compression with slower convergence rate. In this work, we propose the Local Immediate Error Compensated SGD (LIEC-SGD) optimization algorithm to break the above bottlenecks based on bidirectional compression and carefully designed compensation approaches. Specifically, the bidirectional compression technique is to reduce the communication cost, and the compensation technique compensates the local compression error to the model update immediately while only maintaining the global error variable on the server throughout the iterations to boost its efficacy. Theoretically, we prove that LIEC-SGD is superior to previous works in either the convergence rate or the communication cost, which indicates that LIEC-SGD could inherit the dual advantages from unidirectional compression and bidirectional compression. Finally, experiments of training deep neural networks validate the effectiveness of the proposed LIEC-SGD algorithm.

Via

Zhongyi Zhou, Jing Jin, Vrushank Phadnis, Xiuxiu Yuan, Jun Jiang, Xun Qian, Jingtao Zhou, Yiyi Huang, Zheng Xu, Yinda Zhang, Kristen Wright, Jason Mayes, Mark Sherwood, Johnny Lee, Alex Olwal, David Kim, Ram Iyengar, Na Li, Ruofei Du

Visual programming provides beginner-level programmers with a coding-free experience to build their customized pipelines. Existing systems require users to build a pipeline entirely from scratch, implying that novice users need to set up and link appropriate nodes all by themselves, starting from a blank workspace. We present InstructPipe, an AI assistant that enables users to start prototyping machine learning (ML) pipelines with text instructions. We designed two LLM modules and a code interpreter to execute our solution. LLM modules generate pseudocode of a target pipeline, and the interpreter renders a pipeline in the node-graph editor for further human-AI collaboration. Technical evaluations reveal that InstructPipe reduces user interactions by 81.1% compared to traditional methods. Our user study (N=16) showed that InstructPipe empowers novice users to streamline their workflow in creating desired ML pipelines, reduce their learning curve, and spark innovative ideas with open-ended commands.

Via

Xuhai Xu, Mengjie Yu, Tanya R. Jonker, Kashyap Todi, Feiyu Lu, Xun Qian, João Marcelo Evangelista Belo, Tianyi Wang, Michelle Li, Aran Mun, Te-Yen Wu, Junxiao Shen, Ting Zhang, Narine Kokhlikyan, Fulton Wang, Paul Sorenson, Sophie Kahyun Kim, Hrvoje Benko

Explainable AI (XAI) has established itself as an important component of AI-driven interactive systems. With Augmented Reality (AR) becoming more integrated in daily lives, the role of XAI also becomes essential in AR because end-users will frequently interact with intelligent services. However, it is unclear how to design effective XAI experiences for AR. We propose XAIR, a design framework that addresses "when", "what", and "how" to provide explanations of AI output in AR. The framework was based on a multi-disciplinary literature review of XAI and HCI research, a large-scale survey probing 500+ end-users' preferences for AR-based explanations, and three workshops with 12 experts collecting their insights about XAI design in AR. XAIR's utility and effectiveness was verified via a study with 10 designers and another study with 12 end-users. XAIR can provide guidelines for designers, inspiring them to identify new design opportunities and achieve effective XAI designs in AR.

Via

Despite their high computation and communication costs, Newton-type methods remain an appealing option for distributed training due to their robustness against ill-conditioned convex problems. In this work, we study ommunication compression and aggregation mechanisms for curvature information in order to reduce these costs while preserving theoretically superior local convergence guarantees. We prove that the recently developed class of three point compressors (3PC) of Richtarik et al. [2022] for gradient communication can be generalized to Hessian communication as well. This result opens up a wide variety of communication strategies, such as contractive compression} and lazy aggregation, available to our disposal to compress prohibitively costly curvature information. Moreover, we discovered several new 3PC mechanisms, such as adaptive thresholding and Bernoulli aggregation, which require reduced communication and occasional Hessian computations. Furthermore, we extend and analyze our approach to bidirectional communication compression and partial device participation setups to cater to the practical considerations of applications in federated learning. For all our methods, we derive fast condition-number-independent local linear and/or superlinear convergence rates. Finally, with extensive numerical evaluations on convex optimization problems, we illustrate that our designed schemes achieve state-of-the-art communication complexity compared to several key baselines using second-order information.

Via

Recent advances in distributed optimization have shown that Newton-type methods with proper communication compression mechanisms can guarantee fast local rates and low communication cost compared to first order methods. We discover that the communication cost of these methods can be further reduced, sometimes dramatically so, with a surprisingly simple trick: {\em Basis Learn (BL)}. The idea is to transform the usual representation of the local Hessians via a change of basis in the space of matrices and apply compression tools to the new representation. To demonstrate the potential of using custom bases, we design a new Newton-type method (BL1), which reduces communication cost via both {\em BL} technique and bidirectional compression mechanism. Furthermore, we present two alternative extensions (BL2 and BL3) to partial participation to accommodate federated learning applications. We prove local linear and superlinear rates independent of the condition number. Finally, we support our claims with numerical experiments by comparing several first and second~order~methods.

Via

Inspired by recent work of Islamov et al (2021), we propose a family of Federated Newton Learn (FedNL) methods, which we believe is a marked step in the direction of making second-order methods applicable to FL. In contrast to the aforementioned work, FedNL employs a different Hessian learning technique which i) enhances privacy as it does not rely on the training data to be revealed to the coordinating server, ii) makes it applicable beyond generalized linear models, and iii) provably works with general contractive compression operators for compressing the local Hessians, such as Top-$K$ or Rank-$R$, which are vastly superior in practice. Notably, we do not need to rely on error feedback for our methods to work with contractive compressors. Moreover, we develop FedNL-PP, FedNL-CR and FedNL-LS, which are variants of FedNL that support partial participation, and globalization via cubic regularization and line search, respectively, and FedNL-BC, which is a variant that can further benefit from bidirectional compression of gradients and models, i.e., smart uplink gradient and smart downlink model compression. We prove local convergence rates that are independent of the condition number, the number of training data points, and compression variance. Our communication efficient Hessian learning technique provably learns the Hessian at the optimum. Finally, we perform a variety of numerical experiments that show that our FedNL methods have state-of-the-art communication complexity when compared to key baselines.

Via

We develop several new communication-efficient second-order methods for distributed optimization. Our first method, NEWTON-STAR, is a variant of Newton's method from which it inherits its fast local quadratic rate. However, unlike Newton's method, NEWTON-STAR enjoys the same per iteration communication cost as gradient descent. While this method is impractical as it relies on the use of certain unknown parameters characterizing the Hessian of the objective function at the optimum, it serves as the starting point which enables us design practical variants thereof with strong theoretical guarantees. In particular, we design a stochastic sparsification strategy for learning the unknown parameters in an iterative fashion in a communication efficient manner. Applying this strategy to NEWTON-STAR leads to our next method, NEWTON-LEARN, for which we prove local linear and superlinear rates independent of the condition number. When applicable, this method can have dramatically superior convergence behavior when compared to state-of-the-art methods. Finally, we develop a globalization strategy using cubic regularization which leads to our next method, CUBIC-NEWTON-LEARN, for which we prove global sublinear and linear convergence rates, and a fast superlinear rate. Our results are supported with experimental results on real datasets, and show several orders of magnitude improvement on baseline and state-of-the-art methods in terms of communication complexity.

Via

Due to the high communication cost in distributed and federated learning problems, methods relying on compression of communicated messages are becoming increasingly popular. While in other contexts the best performing gradient-type methods invariably rely on some form of acceleration/momentum to reduce the number of iterations, there are no methods which combine the benefits of both gradient compression and acceleration. In this paper, we remedy this situation and propose the first accelerated compressed gradient descent (ACGD) methods. In the single machine regime, we prove that ACGD enjoys the rate $O\left((1+\omega)\sqrt{\frac{L}{\mu}}\log \frac{1}{\epsilon}\right)$ for $\mu$-strongly convex problems and $O\left((1+\omega)\sqrt{\frac{L}{\epsilon}}\right)$ for convex problems, respectively, where $L$ is the smoothness constant and $\omega$ is the compression parameter. Our results improve upon the existing non-accelerated rates $O\left((1+\omega)\frac{L}{\mu}\log \frac{1}{\epsilon}\right)$ and $O\left((1+\omega)\frac{L}{\epsilon}\right)$, respectively, and recover the optimal rates of accelerated gradient descent as a special case when no compression ($\omega=0$) is applied. We further propose a distributed variant of ACGD (called ADIANA) and prove the convergence rate $\widetilde{O}\left(\omega+\sqrt{\frac{L}{\mu}} +\sqrt{\left(\frac{\omega}{n}+\sqrt{\frac{\omega}{n}}\right)\frac{\omega L}{\mu}}\right)$, where $n$ is the number of devices/workers and $\widetilde{O}$ hides the logarithmic factor $\log \frac{1}{\epsilon}$. This improves upon the previous best result $\widetilde{O}\left(\omega + \frac{L}{\mu}+\frac{\omega L}{n\mu} \right)$ achieved by the DIANA method of Mishchenko et al (2019). Finally, we conduct several experiments on real-world datasets which corroborate our theoretical results and confirm the practical superiority of our methods.

Via

We propose a general yet simple theorem describing the convergence of SGD under the arbitrary sampling paradigm. Our theorem describes the convergence of an infinite array of variants of SGD, each of which is associated with a specific probability law governing the data selection rule used to form mini-batches. This is the first time such an analysis is performed, and most of our variants of SGD were never explicitly considered in the literature before. Our analysis relies on the recently introduced notion of expected smoothness and does not rely on a uniform bound on the variance of the stochastic gradients. By specializing our theorem to different mini-batching strategies, such as sampling with replacement and independent sampling, we derive exact expressions for the stepsize as a function of the mini-batch size. With this we can also determine the mini-batch size that optimizes the total complexity, and show explicitly that as the variance of the stochastic gradient evaluated at the minimum grows, so does the optimal mini-batch size. For zero variance, the optimal mini-batch size is one. Moreover, we prove insightful stepsize-switching rules which describe when one should switch from a constant to a decreasing stepsize regime.

Via