Semi-supervised learning has demonstrated great potential in medical image segmentation by utilizing knowledge from unlabeled data. However, most existing approaches do not explicitly capture high-level semantic relations between distant regions, which limits their performance. In this paper, we focus on representation learning for semi-supervised learning, by developing a novel Multi-Scale Cross Supervised Contrastive Learning (MCSC) framework, to segment structures in medical images. We jointly train CNN and Transformer models, regularising their features to be semantically consistent across different scales. Our approach contrasts multi-scale features based on ground-truth and cross-predicted labels, in order to extract robust feature representations that reflect intra- and inter-slice relationships across the whole dataset. To tackle class imbalance, we take into account the prevalence of each class to guide contrastive learning and ensure that features adequately capture infrequent classes. Extensive experiments on two multi-structure medical segmentation datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of MCSC. It not only outperforms state-of-the-art semi-supervised methods by more than 3.0% in Dice, but also greatly reduces the performance gap with fully supervised methods.
The success of most advanced facial expression recognition works relies heavily on large-scale annotated datasets. However, it poses great challenges in acquiring clean and consistent annotations for facial expression datasets. On the other hand, self-supervised contrastive learning has gained great popularity due to its simple yet effective instance discrimination training strategy, which can potentially circumvent the annotation issue. Nevertheless, there remain inherent disadvantages of instance-level discrimination, which are even more challenging when faced with complicated facial representations. In this paper, we revisit the use of self-supervised contrastive learning and explore three core strategies to enforce expression-specific representations and to minimize the interference from other facial attributes, such as identity and face styling. Experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms the current state-of-the-art self-supervised learning methods, in terms of both categorical and dimensional facial expression recognition tasks.
In our recent dietary assessment field studies on passive dietary monitoring in Ghana, we have collected over 250k in-the-wild images. The dataset is an ongoing effort to facilitate accurate measurement of individual food and nutrient intake in low and middle income countries with passive monitoring camera technologies. The current dataset involves 20 households (74 subjects) from both the rural and urban regions of Ghana, and two different types of wearable cameras were used in the studies. Once initiated, wearable cameras continuously capture subjects' activities, which yield massive amounts of data to be cleaned and annotated before analysis is conducted. To ease the data post-processing and annotation tasks, we propose a novel self-supervised learning framework to cluster the large volume of egocentric images into separate events. Each event consists of a sequence of temporally continuous and contextually similar images. By clustering images into separate events, annotators and dietitians can examine and analyze the data more efficiently and facilitate the subsequent dietary assessment processes. Validated on a held-out test set with ground truth labels, the proposed framework outperforms baselines in terms of clustering quality and classification accuracy.
Visual relationship detection aims to detect the interactions between objects in an image; however, this task suffers from combinatorial explosion due to the variety of objects and interactions. Since the interactions associated with the same object are dependent, we explore the dependency of interactions to reduce the search space. We explicitly model objects and interactions by an interaction graph and then propose a message-passing-style algorithm to propagate the contextual information. We thus call the proposed method neural message passing (NMP). We further integrate language priors and spatial cues to rule out unrealistic interactions and capture spatial interactions. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method. Our code is available at https://github.com/PhyllisH/NMP.
The LIDC-IDRI database is the most popular benchmark for lung cancer prediction. However, with subjective assessment from radiologists, nodules in LIDC may have entirely different malignancy annotations from the pathological ground truth, introducing label assignment errors and subsequent supervision bias during training. The LIDC database thus requires more objective labels for learning-based cancer prediction. Based on an extra small dataset containing 180 nodules diagnosed by pathological examination, we propose to re-label LIDC data to mitigate the effect of original annotation bias verified on this robust benchmark. We demonstrate in this paper that providing new labels by similar nodule retrieval based on metric learning would be an effective re-labeling strategy. Training on these re-labeled LIDC nodules leads to improved model performance, which is enhanced when new labels of uncertain nodules are added. We further infer that re-labeling LIDC is current an expedient way for robust lung cancer prediction while building a large pathological-proven nodule database provides the long-term solution.
Machine learning models fail to perform well on real-world applications when 1) the category distribution P(Y) of the training dataset suffers from long-tailed distribution and 2) the test data is drawn from different conditional distributions P(X|Y). Existing approaches cannot handle the scenario where both issues exist, which however is common for real-world applications. In this study, we took a step forward and looked into the problem of long-tailed classification under domain shifts. We designed three novel core functional blocks including Distribution Calibrated Classification Loss, Visual-Semantic Mapping and Semantic-Similarity Guided Augmentation. Furthermore, we adopted a meta-learning framework which integrates these three blocks to improve domain generalization on unseen target domains. Two new datasets were proposed for this problem, named AWA2-LTS and ImageNet-LTS. We evaluated our method on the two datasets and extensive experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can achieve superior performance over state-of-the-art long-tailed/domain generalization approaches and the combinations. Source codes and datasets can be found at our project page https://xiaogu.site/LTDS.
Recent evolution in deep learning has proven its value for CT-based lung nodule classification. Most current techniques are intrinsically black-box systems, suffering from two generalizability issues in clinical practice. First, benign-malignant discrimination is often assessed by human observers without pathologic diagnoses at the nodule level. We termed these data as "unsure data". Second, a classifier does not necessarily acquire reliable nodule features for stable learning and robust prediction with patch-level labels during learning. In this study, we construct a sure dataset with pathologically-confirmed labels and propose a collaborative learning framework to facilitate sure nodule classification by integrating unsure data knowledge through nodule segmentation and malignancy score regression. A loss function is designed to learn reliable features by introducing interpretability constraints regulated with nodule segmentation maps. Furthermore, based on model inference results that reflect the understanding from both machine and experts, we explore a new nodule analysis method for similar historical nodule retrieval and interpretable diagnosis. Detailed experimental results demonstrate that our approach is beneficial for achieving improved performance coupled with faithful model reasoning for lung cancer prediction. Extensive cross-evaluation results further illustrate the effect of unsure data for deep-learning-based methods in lung nodule classification.
In this paper, we address the problem of forecasting the trajectory of an egocentric camera wearer (ego-person) in crowded spaces. The trajectory forecasting ability learned from the data of different camera wearers walking around in the real world can be transferred to assist visually impaired people in navigation, as well as to instill human navigation behaviours in mobile robots, enabling better human-robot interactions. To this end, a novel egocentric human trajectory forecasting dataset was constructed, containing real trajectories of people navigating in crowded spaces wearing a camera, as well as extracted rich contextual data. We extract and utilize three different modalities to forecast the trajectory of the camera wearer, i.e., his/her past trajectory, the past trajectories of nearby people, and the environment such as the scene semantics or the depth of the scene. A Transformer-based encoder-decoder neural network model, integrated with a novel cascaded cross-attention mechanism that fuses multiple modalities, has been designed to predict the future trajectory of the camera wearer. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the results have shown that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in egocentric human trajectory forecasting.
Accurate estimation of three-dimensional human skeletons from depth images can provide important metrics for healthcare applications, especially for biomechanical gait analysis. However, there exist inherent problems associated with depth images captured from a single view. The collected data is greatly affected by occlusions where only partial surface data can be recorded. Furthermore, depth images of human body exhibit heterogeneous characteristics with viewpoint changes, and the estimated poses under local coordinate systems are expected to go through equivariant rotations. Most existing pose estimation models are sensitive to both issues. To address this, we propose a novel approach for cross-view generalization with an occlusion-invariant semi-supervised learning framework built upon a novel rotation-equivariant backbone. Our model was trained with real-world data from a single view and unlabelled synthetic data from multiple views. It can generalize well on the real-world data from all the other unseen views. Our approach has shown superior performance on gait analysis on our ICL-Gait dataset compared to other state-of-the-arts and it can produce more convincing keypoints on ITOP dataset, than its provided "ground truth".