Information Extraction (IE) aims to extract structural knowledge (e.g., entities, relations, events) from natural language texts, which brings challenges to existing methods due to task-specific schemas and complex text expressions. Code, as a typical kind of formalized language, is capable of describing structural knowledge under various schemas in a universal way. On the other hand, Large Language Models (LLMs) trained on both codes and texts have demonstrated powerful capabilities of transforming texts into codes, which provides a feasible solution to IE tasks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a universal retrieval-augmented code generation framework based on LLMs, called Code4UIE, for IE tasks. Specifically, Code4UIE adopts Python classes to define task-specific schemas of various structural knowledge in a universal way. By so doing, extracting knowledge under these schemas can be transformed into generating codes that instantiate the predefined Python classes with the information in texts. To generate these codes more precisely, Code4UIE adopts the in-context learning mechanism to instruct LLMs with examples. In order to obtain appropriate examples for different tasks, Code4UIE explores several example retrieval strategies, which can retrieve examples semantically similar to the given texts. Extensive experiments on five representative IE tasks across nine datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the Code4UIE framework.
The Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA) task aims to answer natural language questions based on a given knowledge base. As a kind of common method for this task, semantic parsing-based ones first convert natural language questions to logical forms (e.g., SPARQL queries) and then execute them on knowledge bases to get answers. Recently, Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown strong abilities in language understanding and may be adopted as semantic parsers in such kinds of methods. However, in doing so, a great challenge for LLMs is to understand the schema of knowledge bases. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an In-Context Schema Understanding (ICSU) method for facilitating LLMs to be used as a semantic parser in KBQA. Specifically, ICSU adopts the In-context Learning mechanism to instruct LLMs to generate SPARQL queries with examples. In order to retrieve appropriate examples from annotated question-query pairs, which contain comprehensive schema information related to questions, ICSU explores four different retrieval strategies. Experimental results on the largest KBQA benchmark, KQA Pro, show that ICSU with all these strategies outperforms that with a random retrieval strategy significantly (from 12\% to 78.76\% in accuracy).
Recent advances in natural language processing, primarily propelled by Large Language Models (LLMs), have showcased their remarkable capabilities grounded in in-context learning. A promising avenue for guiding LLMs in intricate reasoning tasks involves the utilization of intermediate reasoning steps within the Chain-of-Thought (CoT) paradigm. Nevertheless, the central challenge lies in the effective selection of exemplars for facilitating in-context learning. In this study, we introduce a framework that leverages Dual Queries and Low-rank approximation Re-ranking (DQ-LoRe) to automatically select exemplars for in-context learning. Dual Queries first query LLM to obtain LLM-generated knowledge such as CoT, then query the retriever to obtain the final exemplars via both question and the knowledge. Moreover, for the second query, LoRe employs dimensionality reduction techniques to refine exemplar selection, ensuring close alignment with the input question's knowledge. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that DQ-LoRe significantly outperforms prior state-of-the-art methods in the automatic selection of exemplars for GPT-4, enhancing performance from 92.5% to 94.2%. Our comprehensive analysis further reveals that DQ-LoRe consistently outperforms retrieval-based approaches in terms of both performance and adaptability, especially in scenarios characterized by distribution shifts. DQ-LoRe pushes the boundaries of in-context learning and opens up new avenues for addressing complex reasoning challenges. We will release the code soon.
Nested Event Extraction (NEE) aims to extract complex event structures where an event contains other events as its arguments recursively. Nested events involve a kind of Pivot Elements (PEs) that simultaneously act as arguments of outer events and as triggers of inner events, and thus connect them into nested structures. This special characteristic of PEs brings challenges to existing NEE methods, as they cannot well cope with the dual identities of PEs. Therefore, this paper proposes a new model, called PerNee, which extracts nested events mainly based on recognizing PEs. Specifically, PerNee first recognizes the triggers of both inner and outer events and further recognizes the PEs via classifying the relation type between trigger pairs. In order to obtain better representations of triggers and arguments to further improve NEE performance, it incorporates the information of both event types and argument roles into PerNee through prompt learning. Since existing NEE datasets (e.g., Genia11) are limited to specific domains and contain a narrow range of event types with nested structures, we systematically categorize nested events in generic domain and construct a new NEE dataset, namely ACE2005-Nest. Experimental results demonstrate that PerNee consistently achieves state-of-the-art performance on ACE2005-Nest, Genia11 and Genia13.
Event Relation Extraction (ERE) aims to extract multiple kinds of relations among events in texts. However, existing methods singly categorize event relations as different classes, which are inadequately capturing the intrinsic semantics of these relations. To comprehensively understand their intrinsic semantics, in this paper, we obtain prototype representations for each type of event relation and propose a Prototype-Enhanced Matching (ProtoEM) framework for the joint extraction of multiple kinds of event relations. Specifically, ProtoEM extracts event relations in a two-step manner, i.e., prototype representing and prototype matching. In the first step, to capture the connotations of different event relations, ProtoEM utilizes examples to represent the prototypes corresponding to these relations. Subsequently, to capture the interdependence among event relations, it constructs a dependency graph for the prototypes corresponding to these relations and utilized a Graph Neural Network (GNN)-based module for modeling. In the second step, it obtains the representations of new event pairs and calculates their similarity with those prototypes obtained in the first step to evaluate which types of event relations they belong to. Experimental results on the MAVEN-ERE dataset demonstrate that the proposed ProtoEM framework can effectively represent the prototypes of event relations and further obtain a significant improvement over baseline models.
Ground segmentation, as the basic task of unmanned intelligent perception, provides an important support for the target detection task. Unstructured road scenes represented by open-pit mines have irregular boundary lines and uneven road surfaces, which lead to segmentation errors in current ground segmentation methods. To solve this problem, a ground segmentation method based on point cloud map is proposed, which involves three parts: region of interest extraction, point cloud registration and background subtraction. Firstly, establishing boundary semantic associations to obtain regions of interest in unstructured roads. Secondly, establishing the location association between point cloud map and the real-time point cloud of region of interest by semantics information. Thirdly, establishing a background model based on Gaussian distribution according to location association, and segments the ground in real-time point cloud by the background substraction method. Experimental results show that the correct segmentation rate of ground points is 99.95%, and the running time is 26ms. Compared with state of the art ground segmentation algorithm Patchwork++, the average accuracy of ground point segmentation is increased by 7.43%, and the running time is increased by 17ms. Furthermore, the proposed method is practically applied to unstructured road scenarios represented by open pit mines.
Recently, the advent of pre-trained large-scale language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT and GPT-4 have significantly advanced the machine's natural language understanding capabilities. This breakthrough has allowed us to seamlessly integrate these open-source LLMs into a unified robot simulator environment to help robots accurately understand and execute human natural language instructions. To this end, in this work, we introduce a realistic robotic manipulation simulator and build a Robotic Manipulation with Progressive Reasoning Tasks (RM-PRT) benchmark on this basis. Specifically, the RM-PRT benchmark builds a new high-fidelity digital twin scene based on Unreal Engine 5, which includes 782 categories, 2023 objects, and 15K natural language instructions generated by ChatGPT for a detailed evaluation of robot manipulation. We propose a general pipeline for the RM-PRT benchmark that takes as input multimodal prompts containing natural language instructions and automatically outputs actions containing the movement and position transitions. We set four natural language understanding tasks with progressive reasoning levels and evaluate the robot's ability to understand natural language instructions in two modes of adsorption and grasping. In addition, we also conduct a comprehensive analysis and comparison of the differences and advantages of 10 different LLMs in instruction understanding and generation quality. We hope the new simulator and benchmark will facilitate future research on language-guided robotic manipulation. Project website: https://necolizer.github.io/RM-PRT/ .
Growing interest in autonomous driving (AD) and intelligent vehicles (IVs) is fueled by their promise for enhanced safety, efficiency, and economic benefits. While previous surveys have captured progress in this field, a comprehensive and forward-looking summary is needed. Our work fills this gap through three distinct articles. The first part, a "Survey of Surveys" (SoS), outlines the history, surveys, ethics, and future directions of AD and IV technologies. The second part, "Milestones in Autonomous Driving and Intelligent Vehicles Part I: Control, Computing System Design, Communication, HD Map, Testing, and Human Behaviors" delves into the development of control, computing system, communication, HD map, testing, and human behaviors in IVs. This part, the third part, reviews perception and planning in the context of IVs. Aiming to provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advancements in AD and IVs, this work caters to both newcomers and seasoned researchers. By integrating the SoS and Part I, we offer unique insights and strive to serve as a bridge between past achievements and future possibilities in this dynamic field.
Event Causality Identification (ECI) aims to identify causal relations between events in unstructured texts. This is a very challenging task, because causal relations are usually expressed by implicit associations between events. Existing methods usually capture such associations by directly modeling the texts with pre-trained language models, which underestimate two kinds of semantic structures vital to the ECI task, namely, event-centric structure and event-associated structure. The former includes important semantic elements related to the events to describe them more precisely, while the latter contains semantic paths between two events to provide possible supports for ECI. In this paper, we study the implicit associations between events by modeling the above explicit semantic structures, and propose a Semantic Structure Integration model (SemSIn). It utilizes a GNN-based event aggregator to integrate the event-centric structure information, and employs an LSTM-based path aggregator to capture the event-associated structure information between two events. Experimental results on three widely used datasets show that SemSIn achieves significant improvements over baseline methods.