In the field of natural language processing, the rapid development of large language model (LLM) has attracted more and more attention. LLMs have shown a high level of creativity in various tasks, but the methods for assessing such creativity are inadequate. The assessment of LLM creativity needs to consider differences from humans, requiring multi-dimensional measurement while balancing accuracy and efficiency. This paper aims to establish an efficient framework for assessing the level of creativity in LLMs. By adapting the modified Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, the research evaluates the creative performance of various LLMs across 7 tasks, emphasizing 4 criteria including Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, and Elaboration. In this context, we develop a comprehensive dataset of 700 questions for testing and an LLM-based evaluation method. In addition, this study presents a novel analysis of LLMs' responses to diverse prompts and role-play situations. We found that the creativity of LLMs primarily falls short in originality, while excelling in elaboration. Besides, the use of prompts and the role-play settings of the model significantly influence creativity. Additionally, the experimental results also indicate that collaboration among multiple LLMs can enhance originality. Notably, our findings reveal a consensus between human evaluations and LLMs regarding the personality traits that influence creativity. The findings underscore the significant impact of LLM design on creativity and bridges artificial intelligence and human creativity, offering insights into LLMs' creativity and potential applications.
Research on emergent communication between deep-learning-based agents has received extensive attention due to its inspiration for linguistics and artificial intelligence. However, previous attempts have hovered around emerging communication under perception-oriented environmental settings, that forces agents to describe low-level perceptual features intra image or symbol contexts. In this work, inspired by the classic human reasoning test (namely Raven's Progressive Matrix), we propose the Reasoning Game, a cognition-oriented environment that encourages agents to reason and communicate high-level rules, rather than perceived low-level contexts. Moreover, we propose 1) an unbiased dataset (namely rule-RAVEN) as a benchmark to avoid overfitting, 2) and a two-stage curriculum agent training method as a baseline for more stable convergence in the Reasoning Game, where contexts and semantics are bilaterally drifting. Experimental results show that, in the Reasoning Game, a semantically stable and compositional language emerges to solve reasoning problems. The emerged language helps agents apply the extracted rules to the generalization of unseen context attributes, and to the transfer between different context attributes or even tasks.
Offline meta-reinforcement learning (OMRL) utilizes pre-collected offline datasets to enhance the agent's generalization ability on unseen tasks. However, the context shift problem arises due to the distribution discrepancy between the contexts used for training (from the behavior policy) and testing (from the exploration policy). The context shift problem leads to incorrect task inference and further deteriorates the generalization ability of the meta-policy. Existing OMRL methods either overlook this problem or attempt to mitigate it with additional information. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called Context Shift Reduction for OMRL (CSRO) to address the context shift problem with only offline datasets. The key insight of CSRO is to minimize the influence of policy in context during both the meta-training and meta-test phases. During meta-training, we design a max-min mutual information representation learning mechanism to diminish the impact of the behavior policy on task representation. In the meta-test phase, we introduce the non-prior context collection strategy to reduce the effect of the exploration policy. Experimental results demonstrate that CSRO significantly reduces the context shift and improves the generalization ability, surpassing previous methods across various challenging domains.
In the field of multi-task reinforcement learning, the modular principle, which involves specializing functionalities into different modules and combining them appropriately, has been widely adopted as a promising approach to prevent the negative transfer problem that performance degradation due to conflicts between tasks. However, most of the existing multi-task RL methods only combine shared modules at the task level, ignoring that there may be conflicts within the task. In addition, these methods do not take into account that without constraints, some modules may learn similar functions, resulting in restricting the model's expressiveness and generalization capability of modular methods. In this paper, we propose the Contrastive Modules with Temporal Attention(CMTA) method to address these limitations. CMTA constrains the modules to be different from each other by contrastive learning and combining shared modules at a finer granularity than the task level with temporal attention, alleviating the negative transfer within the task and improving the generalization ability and the performance for multi-task RL. We conducted the experiment on Meta-World, a multi-task RL benchmark containing various robotics manipulation tasks. Experimental results show that CMTA outperforms learning each task individually for the first time and achieves substantial performance improvements over the baselines.
* This paper has been accepted at NeurIPS 2023 as a poster
Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has led to a wide range of advances in sequential decision-making tasks. However, the complexity of neural network policies makes it difficult to understand and deploy with limited computational resources. Currently, employing compact symbolic expressions as symbolic policies is a promising strategy to obtain simple and interpretable policies. Previous symbolic policy methods usually involve complex training processes and pre-trained neural network policies, which are inefficient and limit the application of symbolic policies. In this paper, we propose an efficient gradient-based learning method named Efficient Symbolic Policy Learning (ESPL) that learns the symbolic policy from scratch in an end-to-end way. We introduce a symbolic network as the search space and employ a path selector to find the compact symbolic policy. By doing so we represent the policy with a differentiable symbolic expression and train it in an off-policy manner which further improves the efficiency. In addition, in contrast with previous symbolic policies which only work in single-task RL because of complexity, we expand ESPL on meta-RL to generate symbolic policies for unseen tasks. Experimentally, we show that our approach generates symbolic policies with higher performance and greatly improves data efficiency for single-task RL. In meta-RL, we demonstrate that compared with neural network policies the proposed symbolic policy achieves higher performance and efficiency and shows the potential to be interpretable.
Large language models (LLMs) show their powerful automatic reasoning and planning capability with a wealth of semantic knowledge about the human world. However, the grounding problem still hinders the applications of LLMs in the real-world environment. Existing studies try to fine-tune the LLM or utilize pre-defined behavior APIs to bridge the LLMs and the environment, which not only costs huge human efforts to customize for every single task but also weakens the generality strengths of LLMs. To autonomously ground the LLM onto the environment, we proposed the Self-Driven Grounding (SDG) framework to automatically and progressively ground the LLM with self-driven skill learning. SDG first employs the LLM to propose the hypothesis of sub-goals to achieve tasks and then verify the feasibility of the hypothesis via interacting with the underlying environment. Once verified, SDG can then learn generalized skills with the guidance of these successfully grounded subgoals. These skills can be further utilized to accomplish more complex tasks which fail to pass the verification phase. Verified in the famous instruction following task set-BabyAI, SDG achieves comparable performance in the most challenging tasks compared with imitation learning methods that cost millions of demonstrations, proving the effectiveness of learned skills and showing the feasibility and efficiency of our framework.
Domain adaptation in reinforcement learning (RL) mainly deals with the changes of observation when transferring the policy to a new environment. Many traditional approaches of domain adaptation in RL manage to learn a mapping function between the source and target domain in explicit or implicit ways. However, they typically require access to abundant data from the target domain. Besides, they often rely on visual clues to learn the mapping function and may fail when the source domain looks quite different from the target domain. To address these problems, we propose a novel framework Online Prototype Alignment (OPA) to learn the mapping function based on the functional similarity of elements and is able to achieve the few-shot policy transfer within only several episodes. The key insight of OPA is to introduce an exploration mechanism that can interact with the unseen elements of the target domain in an efficient and purposeful manner, and then connect them with the seen elements in the source domain according to their functionalities (instead of visual clues). Experimental results show that when the target domain looks visually different from the source domain, OPA can achieve better transfer performance even with much fewer samples from the target domain, outperforming prior methods.
In recent years, videos and images in 720p (HD), 1080p (FHD) and 4K (UHD) resolution have become more popular for display devices such as TVs, mobile phones and VR. However, these high resolution images cannot achieve the expected visual effect due to the limitation of the internet bandwidth, and bring a great challenge for super-resolution networks to achieve real-time performance. Following this challenge, we explore multiple efficient network designs, such as pixel-unshuffle, repeat upscaling, and local skip connection removal, and propose a fast and lightweight super-resolution network. Furthermore, by analyzing the applications of the idea of divide-and-conquer in super-resolution, we propose assembled convolutions which can adapt convolution kernels according to the input features. Experiments suggest that our method outperforms all the state-of-the-art efficient super-resolution models, and achieves optimal results in terms of runtime and quality. In addition, our method also wins the first place in NTIRE 2023 Real-Time Super-Resolution - Track 1 ($\times$2). The code will be available at https://gitee.com/mindspore/models/tree/master/research/cv/AsConvSR
Despite the broad application of deep reinforcement learning (RL), transferring and adapting the policy to unseen but similar environments is still a significant challenge. Recently, the language-conditioned policy is proposed to facilitate policy transfer through learning the joint representation of observation and text that catches the compact and invariant information across environments. Existing studies of language-conditioned RL methods often learn the joint representation as a simple latent layer for the given instances (episode-specific observation and text), which inevitably includes noisy or irrelevant information and cause spurious correlations that are dependent on instances, thus hurting generalization performance and training efficiency. To address this issue, we propose a conceptual reinforcement learning (CRL) framework to learn the concept-like joint representation for language-conditioned policy. The key insight is that concepts are compact and invariant representations in human cognition through extracting similarities from numerous instances in real-world. In CRL, we propose a multi-level attention encoder and two mutual information constraints for learning compact and invariant concepts. Verified in two challenging environments, RTFM and Messenger, CRL significantly improves the training efficiency (up to 70%) and generalization ability (up to 30%) to the new environment dynamics.
Online processing of compressed videos to increase their resolutions attracts increasing and broad attention. Video Super-Resolution (VSR) using recurrent neural network architecture is a promising solution due to its efficient modeling of long-range temporal dependencies. However, state-of-the-art recurrent VSR models still require significant computation to obtain a good performance, mainly because of the complicated motion estimation for frame/feature alignment and the redundant processing of consecutive video frames. In this paper, considering the characteristics of compressed videos, we propose a Codec Information Assisted Framework (CIAF) to boost and accelerate recurrent VSR models for compressed videos. Firstly, the framework reuses the coded video information of Motion Vectors to model the temporal relationships between adjacent frames. Experiments demonstrate that the models with Motion Vector based alignment can significantly boost the performance with negligible additional computation, even comparable to those using more complex optical flow based alignment. Secondly, by further making use of the coded video information of Residuals, the framework can be informed to skip the computation on redundant pixels. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework can save up to 70% of the computation without performance drop on the REDS4 test videos encoded by H.264 when CRF is 23.