It is known that deep neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. Although Automatic Speaker Verification (ASV) built on top of deep neural networks exhibits robust performance in controlled scenarios, many studies confirm that ASV is vulnerable to adversarial attacks. The lack of a standard dataset is a bottleneck for further research, especially reproducible research. In this study, we developed an open-source adversarial attack dataset for speaker verification research. As an initial step, we focused on the over-the-air attack. An over-the-air adversarial attack involves a perturbation generation algorithm, a loudspeaker, a microphone, and an acoustic environment. The variations in the recording configurations make it very challenging to reproduce previous research. The AdvSV dataset is constructed using the Voxceleb1 Verification test set as its foundation. This dataset employs representative ASV models subjected to adversarial attacks and records adversarial samples to simulate over-the-air attack settings. The scope of the dataset can be easily extended to include more types of adversarial attacks. The dataset will be released to the public under the CC-BY license. In addition, we also provide a detection baseline for reproducible research.
Market making (MM) has attracted significant attention in financial trading owing to its essential function in ensuring market liquidity. With strong capabilities in sequential decision-making, Reinforcement Learning (RL) technology has achieved remarkable success in quantitative trading. Nonetheless, most existing RL-based MM methods focus on optimizing single-price level strategies which fail at frequent order cancellations and loss of queue priority. Strategies involving multiple price levels align better with actual trading scenarios. However, given the complexity that multi-price level strategies involves a comprehensive trading action space, the challenge of effectively training profitable RL agents for MM persists. Inspired by the efficient workflow of professional human market makers, we propose Imitative Market Maker (IMM), a novel RL framework leveraging both knowledge from suboptimal signal-based experts and direct policy interactions to develop multi-price level MM strategies efficiently. The framework start with introducing effective state and action representations adept at encoding information about multi-price level orders. Furthermore, IMM integrates a representation learning unit capable of capturing both short- and long-term market trends to mitigate adverse selection risk. Subsequently, IMM formulates an expert strategy based on signals and trains the agent through the integration of RL and imitation learning techniques, leading to efficient learning. Extensive experimental results on four real-world market datasets demonstrate that IMM outperforms current RL-based market making strategies in terms of several financial criteria. The findings of the ablation study substantiate the effectiveness of the model components.
Multimodal sentiment analysis (MSA) is a fundamental complex research problem due to the heterogeneity gap between different modalities and the ambiguity of human emotional expression. Although there have been many successful attempts to construct multimodal representations for MSA, there are still two challenges to be addressed: 1) A more robust multimodal representation needs to be constructed to bridge the heterogeneity gap and cope with the complex multimodal interactions, and 2) the contextual dynamics must be modeled effectively throughout the information flow. In this work, we propose a multimodal representation model based on Mutual information Maximization and Minimization and Identity Embedding (MMMIE). We combine mutual information maximization between modal pairs, and mutual information minimization between input data and corresponding features to mine the modal-invariant and task-related information. Furthermore, Identity Embedding is proposed to prompt the downstream network to perceive the contextual information. Experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has revolutionized learning and actuation in applications such as game playing and robotic control. The cost of data collection, i.e., generating transitions from agent-environment interactions, remains a major challenge for wider DRL adoption in complex real-world problems. Following a cloud-native paradigm to train DRL agents on a GPU cloud platform is a promising solution. In this paper, we present a scalable and elastic library ElegantRL-podracer for cloud-native deep reinforcement learning, which efficiently supports millions of GPU cores to carry out massively parallel training at multiple levels. At a high-level, ElegantRL-podracer employs a tournament-based ensemble scheme to orchestrate the training process on hundreds or even thousands of GPUs, scheduling the interactions between a leaderboard and a training pool with hundreds of pods. At a low-level, each pod simulates agent-environment interactions in parallel by fully utilizing nearly 7,000 GPU CUDA cores in a single GPU. Our ElegantRL-podracer library features high scalability, elasticity and accessibility by following the development principles of containerization, microservices and MLOps. Using an NVIDIA DGX SuperPOD cloud, we conduct extensive experiments on various tasks in locomotion and stock trading and show that ElegantRL-podracer substantially outperforms RLlib. Our codes are available on GitHub.