Model initialization techniques are vital for improving the performance and reliability of deep learning models in medical computer vision applications. While much literature exists on non-medical images, the impacts on medical images, particularly chest X-rays (CXRs) are less understood. Addressing this gap, our study explores three deep model initialization techniques: Cold-start, Warm-start, and Shrink and Perturb start, focusing on adult and pediatric populations. We specifically focus on scenarios with periodically arriving data for training, thereby embracing the real-world scenarios of ongoing data influx and the need for model updates. We evaluate these models for generalizability against external adult and pediatric CXR datasets. We also propose novel ensemble methods: F-score-weighted Sequential Least-Squares Quadratic Programming (F-SLSQP) and Attention-Guided Ensembles with Learnable Fuzzy Softmax to aggregate weight parameters from multiple models to capitalize on their collective knowledge and complementary representations. We perform statistical significance tests with 95% confidence intervals and p-values to analyze model performance. Our evaluations indicate models initialized with ImageNet-pre-trained weights demonstrate superior generalizability over randomly initialized counterparts, contradicting some findings for non-medical images. Notably, ImageNet-pretrained models exhibit consistent performance during internal and external testing across different training scenarios. Weight-level ensembles of these models show significantly higher recall (p<0.05) during testing compared to individual models. Thus, our study accentuates the benefits of ImageNet-pretrained weight initialization, especially when used with weight-level ensembles, for creating robust and generalizable deep learning solutions.
Deep learning (DL) has demonstrated its innate capacity to independently learn hierarchical features from complex and multi-dimensional data. A common understanding is that its performance scales up with the amount of training data. Another data attribute is the inherent variety. It follows, therefore, that semantic redundancy, which is the presence of similar or repetitive information, would tend to lower performance and limit generalizability to unseen data. In medical imaging data, semantic redundancy can occur due to the presence of multiple images that have highly similar presentations for the disease of interest. Further, the common use of augmentation methods to generate variety in DL training may be limiting performance when applied to semantically redundant data. We propose an entropy-based sample scoring approach to identify and remove semantically redundant training data. We demonstrate using the publicly available NIH chest X-ray dataset that the model trained on the resulting informative subset of training data significantly outperforms the model trained on the full training set, during both internal (recall: 0.7164 vs 0.6597, p<0.05) and external testing (recall: 0.3185 vs 0.2589, p<0.05). Our findings emphasize the importance of information-oriented training sample selection as opposed to the conventional practice of using all available training data.
Human-Object Interaction (HOI) detection is a challenging computer vision task that requires visual models to address the complex interactive relationship between humans and objects and predict HOI triplets. Despite the challenges posed by the numerous interaction combinations, they also offer opportunities for multimodal learning of visual texts. In this paper, we present a systematic and unified framework (RmLR) that enhances HOI detection by incorporating structured text knowledge. Firstly, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the loss of interaction information in the two-stage HOI detector and propose a re-mining strategy to generate more comprehensive visual representation.Secondly, we design more fine-grained sentence- and word-level alignment and knowledge transfer strategies to effectively address the many-to-many matching problem between multiple interactions and multiple texts.These strategies alleviate the matching confusion problem that arises when multiple interactions occur simultaneously, thereby improving the effectiveness of the alignment process. Finally, HOI reasoning by visual features augmented with textual knowledge substantially improves the understanding of interactions. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of our approach, where state-of-the-art performance is achieved on public benchmarks. We further analyze the effects of different components of our approach to provide insights into its efficacy.
Most existing studies on massive grant-free access, proposed to support massive machine-type communications (mMTC) for the Internet of things (IoT), assume Rayleigh fading and perfect synchronization for simplicity. However, in practice, line-of-sight (LoS) components generally exist, and time and frequency synchronization are usually imperfect. This paper systematically investigates maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-based device activity detection under Rician fading for massive grant-free access with perfect and imperfect synchronization. Specifically, we formulate device activity detection in the synchronous case and joint device activity and offset detection in three asynchronous cases (i.e., time, frequency, and time and frequency asynchronous cases) as MLE problems. In the synchronous case, we propose an iterative algorithm to obtain a stationary point of the MLE problem. In each asynchronous case, we propose two iterative algorithms with identical detection performance but different computational complexities. In particular, one is computationally efficient for small ranges of offsets, whereas the other one, relying on fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse FFT, is computationally efficient for large ranges of offsets. The proposed algorithms generalize the existing MLE-based methods for Rayleigh fading and perfect synchronization. Numerical results show the notable gains of the proposed algorithms over existing methods in detection accuracy and computation time.
Neural networks (NN) have demonstrated remarkable capabilities in various tasks, but their computation-intensive nature demands faster and more energy-efficient hardware implementations. Optics-based platforms, using technologies such as silicon photonics and spatial light modulators, offer promising avenues for achieving this goal. However, training multiple trainable layers in tandem with these physical systems poses challenges, as they are difficult to fully characterize and describe with differentiable functions, hindering the use of error backpropagation algorithm. The recently introduced Forward-Forward Algorithm (FFA) eliminates the need for perfect characterization of the learning system and shows promise for efficient training with large numbers of programmable parameters. The FFA does not require backpropagating an error signal to update the weights, rather the weights are updated by only sending information in one direction. The local loss function for each set of trainable weights enables low-power analog hardware implementations without resorting to metaheuristic algorithms or reinforcement learning. In this paper, we present an experiment utilizing multimode nonlinear wave propagation in an optical fiber demonstrating the feasibility of the FFA approach using an optical system. The results show that incorporating optical transforms in multilayer NN architectures trained with the FFA, can lead to performance improvements, even with a relatively small number of trainable weights. The proposed method offers a new path to the challenge of training optical NNs and provides insights into leveraging physical transformations for enhancing NN performance.
Automatic and accurate segmentation of aortic vessel tree (AVT) in computed tomography (CT) scans is crucial for early detection, diagnosis and prognosis of aortic diseases, such as aneurysms, dissections and stenosis. However, this task remains challenges, due to the complexity of aortic vessel tree and amount of CT angiography data. In this technical report, we use two-stage fully convolutional networks (FCNs) to automatically segment AVT in CTA scans from multiple centers. Specifically, we firstly adopt a 3D FCN with U-shape network architecture to segment AVT in order to produce topology attention and accelerate medical image analysis pipeline. And then another one 3D FCN is trained to segment branches of AVT along the pseudo-centerline of AVT. In the 2023 MICCAI Segmentation of the Aorta (SEG.A.) Challenge , the reported method was evaluated on the public dataset of 56 cases. The resulting Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is 0.920, Jaccard Similarity Coefficient (JSC) is 0.861, Recall is 0.922, and Precision is 0.926 on a 5-fold random split of training and validation set.
We propose a method for adding sound-guided visual effects to specific regions of videos with a zero-shot setting. Animating the appearance of the visual effect is challenging because each frame of the edited video should have visual changes while maintaining temporal consistency. Moreover, existing video editing solutions focus on temporal consistency across frames, ignoring the visual style variations over time, e.g., thunderstorm, wave, fire crackling. To overcome this limitation, we utilize temporal sound features for the dynamic style. Specifically, we guide denoising diffusion probabilistic models with an audio latent representation in the audio-visual latent space. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to explore sound-guided natural video editing from various sound sources with sound-specialized properties, such as intensity, timbre, and volume. Additionally, we design optical flow-based guidance to generate temporally consistent video frames, capturing the pixel-wise relationship between adjacent frames. Experimental results show that our method outperforms existing video editing techniques, producing more realistic visual effects that reflect the properties of sound. Please visit our page: https://kuai-lab.github.io/soundini-gallery/.
No-reference video quality assessment (NR-VQA) for user generated content (UGC) is crucial for understanding and improving visual experience. Unlike video recognition tasks, VQA tasks are sensitive to changes in input resolution. Since large amounts of UGC videos nowadays are 720p or above, the fixed and relatively small input used in conventional NR-VQA methods results in missing high-frequency details for many videos. In this paper, we propose a novel Transformer-based NR-VQA framework that preserves the high-resolution quality information. With the multi-resolution input representation and a novel multi-resolution patch sampling mechanism, our method enables a comprehensive view of both the global video composition and local high-resolution details. The proposed approach can effectively aggregate quality information across different granularities in spatial and temporal dimensions, making the model robust to input resolution variations. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on large-scale UGC VQA datasets LSVQ and LSVQ-1080p, and on KoNViD-1k and LIVE-VQC without fine-tuning.
Assessing the aesthetics of an image is challenging, as it is influenced by multiple factors including composition, color, style, and high-level semantics. Existing image aesthetic assessment (IAA) methods primarily rely on human-labeled rating scores, which oversimplify the visual aesthetic information that humans perceive. Conversely, user comments offer more comprehensive information and are a more natural way to express human opinions and preferences regarding image aesthetics. In light of this, we propose learning image aesthetics from user comments, and exploring vision-language pretraining methods to learn multimodal aesthetic representations. Specifically, we pretrain an image-text encoder-decoder model with image-comment pairs, using contrastive and generative objectives to learn rich and generic aesthetic semantics without human labels. To efficiently adapt the pretrained model for downstream IAA tasks, we further propose a lightweight rank-based adapter that employs text as an anchor to learn the aesthetic ranking concept. Our results show that our pretrained aesthetic vision-language model outperforms prior works on image aesthetic captioning over the AVA-Captions dataset, and it has powerful zero-shot capability for aesthetic tasks such as zero-shot style classification and zero-shot IAA, surpassing many supervised baselines. With only minimal finetuning parameters using the proposed adapter module, our model achieves state-of-the-art IAA performance over the AVA dataset.
Diffusion models have achieved remarkable success in text-to-image generation, enabling the creation of high-quality images from text prompts or other modalities. However, existing methods for customizing these models are limited by handling multiple personalized subjects and the risk of overfitting. Moreover, their large number of parameters is inefficient for model storage. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to address these limitations in existing text-to-image diffusion models for personalization. Our method involves fine-tuning the singular values of the weight matrices, leading to a compact and efficient parameter space that reduces the risk of overfitting and language-drifting. We also propose a Cut-Mix-Unmix data-augmentation technique to enhance the quality of multi-subject image generation and a simple text-based image editing framework. Our proposed SVDiff method has a significantly smaller model size (1.7MB for StableDiffusion) compared to existing methods (vanilla DreamBooth 3.66GB, Custom Diffusion 73MB), making it more practical for real-world applications.