Recently by the development of the Internet and the Web, different types of social media such as web blogs become an immense source of text data. Through the processing of these data, it is possible to discover practical information about different topics, individuals opinions and a thorough understanding of the society. Therefore, applying models which can automatically extract the subjective information from the documents would be efficient and helpful. Topic modeling methods, also sentiment analysis are the most raised topics in the natural language processing and text mining fields. In this paper a new structure for joint sentiment-topic modeling based on Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) which is a type of neural networks is proposed. By modifying the structure of RBM as well as appending a layer which is analogous to sentiment of text data to it, we propose a generative structure for joint sentiment topic modeling based on neutral networks. The proposed method is supervised and trained by the Contrastive Divergence algorithm. The new attached layer in the proposed model is a layer with the multinomial probability distribution which can be used in text data sentiment classification or any other supervised application. The proposed model is compared with existing models in the experiments such as evaluating as a generative model, sentiment classification, information retrieval and the corresponding results demonstrate the efficiency of the method.
Topic models make strong assumptions about their data. In particular, different words are implicitly assumed to have different meanings: topic models are often used as human-interpretable dimensionality reductions and a proliferation of words with identical meanings would undermine the utility of the top-$m$ word list representation of a topic. Though a number of authors have added preprocessing steps such as lemmatization to better accommodate these assumptions, the effects of such data massaging have not been publicly studied. We make first steps toward elucidating the role of morphology in topic modeling by testing the effect of lemmatization on the interpretability of a latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model. Using a word intrusion evaluation, we quantitatively demonstrate that lemmatization provides a significant benefit to the interpretability of a model learned on Wikipedia articles in a morphologically rich language.
Topic modeling based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) has been a framework of choice to deal with multimodal data, such as in image annotation tasks. Another popular approach to model the multimodal data is through deep neural networks, such as the deep Boltzmann machine (DBM). Recently, a new type of topic model called the Document Neural Autoregressive Distribution Estimator (DocNADE) was proposed and demonstrated state-of-the-art performance for text document modeling. In this work, we show how to successfully apply and extend this model to multimodal data, such as simultaneous image classification and annotation. First, we propose SupDocNADE, a supervised extension of DocNADE, that increases the discriminative power of the learned hidden topic features and show how to employ it to learn a joint representation from image visual words, annotation words and class label information. We test our model on the LabelMe and UIUC-Sports data sets and show that it compares favorably to other topic models. Second, we propose a deep extension of our model and provide an efficient way of training the deep model. Experimental results show that our deep model outperforms its shallow version and reaches state-of-the-art performance on the Multimedia Information Retrieval (MIR) Flickr data set.
Electronic health records (EHRs) contain important clinical information about patients. Efficient and effective use of this information could supplement or even replace manual chart review as a means of studying and improving the quality and safety of healthcare delivery. However, some of these clinical data are in the form of free text and require pre-processing before use in automated systems. A common free text data source is radiology reports, typically dictated by radiologists to explain their interpretations. We sought to demonstrate machine learning classification of computed tomography (CT) imaging reports into binary outcomes, i.e. positive and negative for fracture, using regular text classification and classifiers based on topic modeling. Topic modeling provides interpretable themes (topic distributions) in reports, a representation that is more compact than the commonly used bag-of-words representation and can be processed faster than raw text in subsequent automated processes. We demonstrate new classifiers based on this topic modeling representation of the reports. Aggregate topic classifier (ATC) and confidence-based topic classifier (CTC) use a single topic that is determined from the training dataset based on different measures to classify the reports on the test dataset. Alternatively, similarity-based topic classifier (STC) measures the similarity between the reports' topic distributions to determine the predicted class. Our proposed topic modeling-based classifier systems are shown to be competitive with existing text classification techniques and provides an efficient and interpretable representation.
One of the challenges for text analysis in medical domains is analyzing large-scale medical documents. As a consequence, finding relevant documents has become more difficult. One of the popular methods to retrieve information based on discovering the themes in the documents is topic modeling. The themes in the documents help to retrieve documents on the same topic with and without a query. In this paper, we present a novel approach to topic modeling using fuzzy clustering. To evaluate our model, we experiment with two text datasets of medical documents. The evaluation metrics carried out through document classification and document modeling show that our model produces better performance than LDA, indicating that fuzzy set theory can improve the performance of topic models in medical domains.
Probabilistic topic models like Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) have been previously extended to the bilingual setting. A fundamental modeling assumption in several of these extensions is that the input corpora are in the form of document pairs whose constituent documents share a single topic distribution. However, this assumption is strong for comparable corpora that consist of documents thematically similar to an extent only, which are, in turn, the most commonly available or easy to obtain. In this paper we relax this assumption by proposing for the paired documents to have separate, yet bound topic distributions. % a binding mechanism between the distributions of the paired documents. We suggest that the strength of the bound should depend on each pair's semantic similarity. To estimate the similarity of documents that are written in different languages we use cross-lingual word embeddings that are learned with shallow neural networks. We evaluate the proposed binding mechanism by extending two topic models: a bilingual adaptation of LDA that assumes bag-of-words inputs and a model that incorporates part of the text structure in the form of boundaries of semantically coherent segments. To assess the performance of the novel topic models we conduct intrinsic and extrinsic experiments on five bilingual, comparable corpora of English documents with French, German, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese documents. The results demonstrate the efficiency of our approach in terms of both topic coherence measured by the normalized point-wise mutual information, and generalization performance measured by perplexity and in terms of Mean Reciprocal Rank in a cross-lingual document retrieval task for each of the language pairs.
Inferring topics from the overwhelming amount of short texts becomes a critical but challenging task for many content analysis tasks, such as content charactering, user interest profiling, and emerging topic detecting. Existing methods such as probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA) and latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) cannot solve this prob- lem very well since only very limited word co-occurrence information is available in short texts. This paper studies how to incorporate the external word correlation knowledge into short texts to improve the coherence of topic modeling. Based on recent results in word embeddings that learn se- mantically representations for words from a large corpus, we introduce a novel method, Embedding-based Topic Model (ETM), to learn latent topics from short texts. ETM not only solves the problem of very limited word co-occurrence information by aggregating short texts into long pseudo- texts, but also utilizes a Markov Random Field regularized model that gives correlated words a better chance to be put into the same topic. The experiments on real-world datasets validate the effectiveness of our model comparing with the state-of-the-art models.
To unfold the tremendous amount of audiovisual data uploaded daily to social media platforms, effective topic modelling techniques are needed. Existing work tends to apply variants of topic models on text data sets. In this paper, we aim at developing a topic extractor on video transcriptions. The model improves coherence by exploiting neural word embeddings through a graph-based clustering method. Unlike typical topic models, this approach works without knowing the true number of topics. Experimental results on the real-life multimodal data set MuSe-CaR demonstrates that our approach extracts coherent and meaningful topics, outperforming baseline methods. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrate the generalisability of our approach on a pure text review data set.
Social network analysis (SNA), which is a research field describing and modeling the social connection of a certain group of people, is popular among network services. Our topic words analysis project is a SNA method to visualize the topic words among emails from Obama.com to accounts registered in Columbus, Ohio. Based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model, a popular topic model of SNA, our project characterizes the preference of senders for target group of receptors. Gibbs sampling is used to estimate topic and word distribution. Our training and testing data are emails from the carbon-free server Datagreening.com. We use parallel computing tool BashReduce for word processing and generate related words under each latent topic to discovers typical information of political news sending specially to local Columbus receptors. Running on two instances using paralleling tool BashReduce, our project contributes almost 30% speedup processing the raw contents, comparing with processing contents on one instance locally. Also, the experimental result shows that the LDA model applied in our project provides precision rate 53.96% higher than TF-IDF model finding target words, on the condition that appropriate size of topic words list is selected.
Topic models are frequently used in machine learning owing to their high interpretability and modular structure. However, extending a topic model to include a supervisory signal, to incorporate pre-trained word embedding vectors and to include a nonlinear output function is not an easy task because one has to resort to a highly intricate approximate inference procedure. The present paper shows that topic modeling with pre-trained word embedding vectors can be viewed as implementing a neighborhood aggregation algorithm where messages are passed through a network defined over words. From the network view of topic models, nodes correspond to words in a document and edges correspond to either a relationship describing co-occurring words in a document or a relationship describing the same word in the corpus. The network view allows us to extend the model to include supervisory signals, incorporate pre-trained word embedding vectors and include a nonlinear output function in a simple manner. In experiments, we show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art supervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation implementation in terms of both held-out document classification tasks and topic coherence.