Wide-range and fine-grained vehicle detection plays a critical role in enabling active safety features in intelligent driving systems. However, existing vehicle detection methods based on rectangular bounding boxes (BBox) often struggle with perceiving wide-range objects, especially small objects at long distances. And BBox expression cannot provide detailed geometric shape and pose information of vehicles. This paper proposes a novel wide-range Pseudo-3D Vehicle Detection method based on images from a single camera and incorporates efficient learning methods. This model takes a spliced image as input, which is obtained by combining two sub-window images from a high-resolution image. This image format maximizes the utilization of limited image resolution to retain essential information about wide-range vehicle objects. To detect pseudo-3D objects, our model adopts specifically designed detection heads. These heads simultaneously output extended BBox and Side Projection Line (SPL) representations, which capture vehicle shapes and poses, enabling high-precision detection. To further enhance the performance of detection, a joint constraint loss combining both the object box and SPL is designed during model training, improving the efficiency, stability, and prediction accuracy of the model. Experimental results on our self-built dataset demonstrate that our model achieves favorable performance in wide-range pseudo-3D vehicle detection across multiple evaluation metrics. Our demo video has been placed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1gk1PmsQ5Q8.
We present PBFormer, an efficient yet powerful scene text detector that unifies the transformer with a novel text shape representation Polynomial Band (PB). The representation has four polynomial curves to fit a text's top, bottom, left, and right sides, which can capture a text with a complex shape by varying polynomial coefficients. PB has appealing features compared with conventional representations: 1) It can model different curvatures with a fixed number of parameters, while polygon-points-based methods need to utilize a different number of points. 2) It can distinguish adjacent or overlapping texts as they have apparent different curve coefficients, while segmentation-based or points-based methods suffer from adhesive spatial positions. PBFormer combines the PB with the transformer, which can directly generate smooth text contours sampled from predicted curves without interpolation. A parameter-free cross-scale pixel attention (CPA) module is employed to highlight the feature map of a suitable scale while suppressing the other feature maps. The simple operation can help detect small-scale texts and is compatible with the one-stage DETR framework, where no postprocessing exists for NMS. Furthermore, PBFormer is trained with a shape-contained loss, which not only enforces the piecewise alignment between the ground truth and the predicted curves but also makes curves' positions and shapes consistent with each other. Without bells and whistles about text pre-training, our method is superior to the previous state-of-the-art text detectors on the arbitrary-shaped text datasets.
Scene Graph Generation (SGG) as a critical task in image understanding, facing the challenge of head-biased prediction caused by the long-tail distribution of predicates. However, current unbiased SGG methods can easily prioritize improving the prediction of tail predicates while ignoring the substantial sacrifice in the prediction of head predicates, leading to a shift from head bias to tail bias. To address this issue, we propose a model-agnostic Head-Tail Collaborative Learning (HTCL) network that includes head-prefer and tail-prefer feature representation branches that collaborate to achieve accurate recognition of both head and tail predicates. We also propose a self-supervised learning approach to enhance the prediction ability of the tail-prefer feature representation branch by constraining tail-prefer predicate features. Specifically, self-supervised learning converges head predicate features to their class centers while dispersing tail predicate features as much as possible through contrast learning and head center loss. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our HTCL by applying it to various SGG models on VG150, Open Images V6 and GQA200 datasets. The results show that our method achieves higher mean Recall with a minimal sacrifice in Recall and achieves a new state-of-the-art overall performance. Our code is available at https://github.com/wanglei0618/HTCL.
Many data analysis tasks heavily rely on a deep understanding of tables (multi-dimensional data). Across the tasks, there exist comonly used metadata attributes of table fields / columns. In this paper, we identify four such analysis metadata: Measure/dimension dichotomy, common field roles, semantic field type, and default aggregation function. While those metadata face challenges of insufficient supervision signals, utilizing existing knowledge and understanding distribution. To inference these metadata for a raw table, we propose our multi-tasking Metadata model which fuses field distribution and knowledge graph information into pre-trained tabular models. For model training and evaluation, we collect a large corpus (~582k tables from private spreadsheet and public tabular datasets) of analysis metadata by using diverse smart supervisions from downstream tasks. Our best model has accuracy = 98%, hit rate at top-1 > 67%, accuracy > 80%, and accuracy = 88% for the four analysis metadata inference tasks, respectively. It outperforms a series of baselines that are based on rules, traditional machine learning methods, and pre-trained tabular models. Analysis metadata models are deployed in a popular data analysis product, helping downstream intelligent features such as insights mining, chart / pivot table recommendation, and natural language QA...
Detecting 3D lanes from the camera is a rising problem for autonomous vehicles. In this task, the correct camera pose is the key to generating accurate lanes, which can transform an image from perspective-view to the top-view. With this transformation, we can get rid of the perspective effects so that 3D lanes would look similar and can accurately be fitted by low-order polynomials. However, mainstream 3D lane detectors rely on perfect camera poses provided by other sensors, which is expensive and encounters multi-sensor calibration issues. To overcome this problem, we propose to predict 3D lanes by estimating camera pose from a single image with a two-stage framework. The first stage aims at the camera pose task from perspective-view images. To improve pose estimation, we introduce an auxiliary 3D lane task and geometry constraints to benefit from multi-task learning, which enhances consistencies between 3D and 2D, as well as compatibility in the above two tasks. The second stage targets the 3D lane task. It uses previously estimated pose to generate top-view images containing distance-invariant lane appearances for predicting accurate 3D lanes. Experiments demonstrate that, without ground truth camera pose, our method outperforms the state-of-the-art perfect-camera-pose-based methods and has the fewest parameters and computations. Codes are available at https://github.com/liuruijin17/CLGo.
Gaze is the essential manifestation of human attention. In recent years, a series of work has achieved high accuracy in gaze estimation. However, the inter-personal difference limits the reduction of the subject-independent gaze estimation error. This paper proposes an unsupervised method for domain adaptation gaze estimation to eliminate the impact of inter-personal diversity. In domain adaption, we design an embedding representation with prediction consistency to ensure that the linear relationship between gaze directions in different domains remains consistent on gaze space and embedding space. Specifically, we employ source gaze to form a locally linear representation in the gaze space for each target domain prediction. Then the same linear combinations are applied in the embedding space to generate hypothesis embedding for the target domain sample, remaining prediction consistency. The deviation between the target and source domain is reduced by approximating the predicted and hypothesis embedding for the target domain sample. Guided by the proposed strategy, we design Domain Adaptation Gaze Estimation Network(DAGEN), which learns embedding with prediction consistency and achieves state-of-the-art results on both the MPIIGaze and the EYEDIAP datasets.
Lane detection, the process of identifying lane markings as approximated curves, is widely used for lane departure warning and adaptive cruise control in autonomous vehicles. The popular pipeline that solves it in two steps---feature extraction plus post-processing, while useful, is too inefficient and flawed in learning the global context and lanes' long and thin structures. To tackle these issues, we propose an end-to-end method that directly outputs parameters of a lane shape model, using a network built with a transformer to learn richer structures and context. The lane shape model is formulated based on road structures and camera pose, providing physical interpretation for parameters of network output. The transformer models non-local interactions with a self-attention mechanism to capture slender structures and global context. The proposed method is validated on the TuSimple benchmark and shows state-of-the-art accuracy with the most lightweight model size and fastest speed. Additionally, our method shows excellent adaptability to a challenging self-collected lane detection dataset, showing its powerful deployment potential in real applications. Codes are available at https://github.com/liuruijin17/LSTR.
In recognition-based action interaction, robots' responses to human actions are often pre-designed according to recognized categories and thus stiff. In this paper, we specify a new Interactive Action Translation (IAT) task which aims to learn end-to-end action interaction from unlabeled interactive pairs, removing explicit action recognition. To enable learning on small-scale data, we propose a Paired-Embedding (PE) method for effective and reliable data augmentation. Specifically, our method first utilizes paired relationships to cluster individual actions in an embedding space. Then two actions originally paired can be replaced with other actions in their respective neighborhood, assembling into new pairs. An Act2Act network based on conditional GAN follows to learn from augmented data. Besides, IAT-test and IAT-train scores are specifically proposed for evaluating methods on our task. Experimental results on two datasets show impressive effects and broad application prospects of our method.
Despite the notable progress made in action recognition tasks, not much work has been done in action recognition specifically for human-robot interaction. In this paper, we deeply explore the characteristics of the action recognition task in interaction scenarios and propose an attention-oriented multi-level network framework to meet the need for real-time interaction. Specifically, a Pre-Attention network is employed to roughly focus on the interactor in the scene at low resolution firstly and then perform fine-grained pose estimation at high resolution. The other compact CNN receives the extracted skeleton sequence as input for action recognition, utilizing attention-like mechanisms to capture local spatial-temporal patterns and global semantic information effectively. To evaluate our approach, we construct a new action dataset specially for the recognition task in interaction scenarios. Experimental results on our dataset and high efficiency (112 fps at 640 x 480 RGBD) on the mobile computing platform (Nvidia Jetson AGX Xavier) demonstrate excellent applicability of our method on action recognition in real-time human-robot interaction.
Recent progress on deep learning has made it possible to automatically transform the screenshot of Graphic User Interface (GUI) into code by using the encoder-decoder framework. While the commonly adopted image encoder (e.g., CNN network), might be capable of extracting image features to the desired level, interpreting these abstract image features into hundreds of tokens of code puts a particular challenge on the decoding power of the RNN-based code generator. Considering the code used for describing GUI is usually hierarchically structured, we propose a new attention-based hierarchical code generation model, which can describe GUI images in a finer level of details, while also being able to generate hierarchically structured code in consistency with the hierarchical layout of the graphic elements in the GUI. Our model follows the encoder-decoder framework, all the components of which can be trained jointly in an end-to-end manner. The experimental results show that our method outperforms other current state-of-the-art methods on both a publicly available GUI-code dataset as well as a dataset established by our own.