Our work focuses on tackling large-scale fine-grained image retrieval as ranking the images depicting the concept of interests (i.e., the same sub-category labels) highest based on the fine-grained details in the query. It is desirable to alleviate the challenges of both fine-grained nature of small inter-class variations with large intra-class variations and explosive growth of fine-grained data for such a practical task. In this paper, we propose attribute-aware hashing networks with self-consistency for generating attribute-aware hash codes to not only make the retrieval process efficient, but also establish explicit correspondences between hash codes and visual attributes. Specifically, based on the captured visual representations by attention, we develop an encoder-decoder structure network of a reconstruction task to unsupervisedly distill high-level attribute-specific vectors from the appearance-specific visual representations without attribute annotations. Our models are also equipped with a feature decorrelation constraint upon these attribute vectors to strengthen their representative abilities. Then, driven by preserving original entities' similarity, the required hash codes can be generated from these attribute-specific vectors and thus become attribute-aware. Furthermore, to combat simplicity bias in deep hashing, we consider the model design from the perspective of the self-consistency principle and propose to further enhance models' self-consistency by equipping an additional image reconstruction path. Comprehensive quantitative experiments under diverse empirical settings on six fine-grained retrieval datasets and two generic retrieval datasets show the superiority of our models over competing methods.
Learning fine-grained embeddings from coarse labels is a challenging task due to limited label granularity supervision, i.e., lacking the detailed distinctions required for fine-grained tasks. The task becomes even more demanding when attempting few-shot fine-grained recognition, which holds practical significance in various applications. To address these challenges, we propose a novel method that embeds visual embeddings into a hyperbolic space and enhances their discriminative ability with a hierarchical cosine margins manner. Specifically, the hyperbolic space offers distinct advantages, including the ability to capture hierarchical relationships and increased expressive power, which favors modeling fine-grained objects. Based on the hyperbolic space, we further enforce relatively large/small similarity margins between coarse/fine classes, respectively, yielding the so-called hierarchical cosine margins manner. While enforcing similarity margins in the regular Euclidean space has become popular for deep embedding learning, applying it to the hyperbolic space is non-trivial and validating the benefit for coarse-to-fine generalization is valuable. Extensive experiments conducted on five benchmark datasets showcase the effectiveness of our proposed method, yielding state-of-the-art results surpassing competing methods.
Fine-Grained Image Recognition (FGIR) is a fundamental and challenging task in computer vision and multimedia that plays a crucial role in Intellectual Economy and Industrial Internet applications. However, the absence of a unified open-source software library covering various paradigms in FGIR poses a significant challenge for researchers and practitioners in the field. To address this gap, we present Hawkeye, a PyTorch-based library for FGIR with deep learning. Hawkeye is designed with a modular architecture, emphasizing high-quality code and human-readable configuration, providing a comprehensive solution for FGIR tasks. In Hawkeye, we have implemented 16 state-of-the-art fine-grained methods, covering 6 different paradigms, enabling users to explore various approaches for FGIR. To the best of our knowledge, Hawkeye represents the first open-source PyTorch-based library dedicated to FGIR. It is publicly available at https://github.com/Hawkeye-FineGrained/Hawkeye/, providing researchers and practitioners with a powerful tool to advance their research and development in the field of FGIR.
The SnakeCLEF2023 competition aims to the development of advanced algorithms for snake species identification through the analysis of images and accompanying metadata. This paper presents a method leveraging utilization of both images and metadata. Modern CNN models and strong data augmentation are utilized to learn better representation of images. To relieve the challenge of long-tailed distribution, seesaw loss is utilized in our method. We also design a light model to calculate prior probabilities using metadata features extracted from CLIP in post processing stage. Besides, we attach more importance to venomous species by assigning venomous species labels to some examples that model is uncertain about. Our method achieves 91.31% score of the final metric combined of F1 and other metrics on private leaderboard, which is the 1st place among the participators. The code is available at https://github.com/xiaoxsparraw/CLEF2023.
* This work was the winner solution of the SnakeCLEF2023 challenge
We propose Equiangular Basis Vectors (EBVs) for classification tasks. In deep neural networks, models usually end with a k-way fully connected layer with softmax to handle different classification tasks. The learning objective of these methods can be summarized as mapping the learned feature representations to the samples' label space. While in metric learning approaches, the main objective is to learn a transformation function that maps training data points from the original space to a new space where similar points are closer while dissimilar points become farther apart. Different from previous methods, our EBVs generate normalized vector embeddings as "predefined classifiers" which are required to not only be with the equal status between each other, but also be as orthogonal as possible. By minimizing the spherical distance of the embedding of an input between its categorical EBV in training, the predictions can be obtained by identifying the categorical EBV with the smallest distance during inference. Various experiments on the ImageNet-1K dataset and other downstream tasks demonstrate that our method outperforms the general fully connected classifier while it does not introduce huge additional computation compared with classical metric learning methods. Our EBVs won the first place in the 2022 DIGIX Global AI Challenge, and our code is open-source and available at https://github.com/NJUST-VIPGroup/Equiangular-Basis-Vectors.
Simplicity Bias (SB) is a phenomenon that deep neural networks tend to rely favorably on simpler predictive patterns but ignore some complex features when applied to supervised discriminative tasks. In this work, we investigate SB in long-tailed image recognition and find the tail classes suffer more severely from SB, which harms the generalization performance of such underrepresented classes. We empirically report that self-supervised learning (SSL) can mitigate SB and perform in complementary to the supervised counterpart by enriching the features extracted from tail samples and consequently taking better advantage of such rare samples. However, standard SSL methods are designed without explicitly considering the inherent data distribution in terms of classes and may not be optimal for long-tailed distributed data. To address this limitation, we propose a novel SSL method tailored to imbalanced data. It leverages SSL by triple diverse levels, i.e., holistic-, partial-, and augmented-level, to enhance the learning of predictive complex patterns, which provides the potential to overcome the severe SB on tail data. Both quantitative and qualitative experimental results on five long-tailed benchmark datasets show our method can effectively mitigate SB and significantly outperform the competing state-of-the-arts.
In this paper, we propose Suppression-Enhancing Mask based attention and Interactive Channel transformatiON (SEMICON) to learn binary hash codes for dealing with large-scale fine-grained image retrieval tasks. In SEMICON, we first develop a suppression-enhancing mask (SEM) based attention to dynamically localize discriminative image regions. More importantly, different from existing attention mechanism simply erasing previous discriminative regions, our SEM is developed to restrain such regions and then discover other complementary regions by considering the relation between activated regions in a stage-by-stage fashion. In each stage, the interactive channel transformation (ICON) module is afterwards designed to exploit correlations across channels of attended activation tensors. Since channels could generally correspond to the parts of fine-grained objects, the part correlation can be also modeled accordingly, which further improves fine-grained retrieval accuracy. Moreover, to be computational economy, ICON is realized by an efficient two-step process. Finally, the hash learning of our SEMICON consists of both global- and local-level branches for better representing fine-grained objects and then generating binary hash codes explicitly corresponding to multiple levels. Experiments on five benchmark fine-grained datasets show our superiority over competing methods.
Semi-supervised few-shot learning consists in training a classifier to adapt to new tasks with limited labeled data and a fixed quantity of unlabeled data. Many sophisticated methods have been developed to address the challenges this problem comprises. In this paper, we propose a simple but quite effective approach to predict accurate negative pseudo-labels of unlabeled data from an indirect learning perspective, and then augment the extremely label-constrained support set in few-shot classification tasks. Our approach can be implemented in just few lines of code by only using off-the-shelf operations, yet it is able to outperform state-of-the-art methods on four benchmark datasets.
Unsupervised learning technology has caught up with or even surpassed supervised learning technology in general object classification (GOC) and person re-identification (re-ID). However, it is found that the unsupervised learning of fine-grained visual classification (FGVC) is more challenging than GOC and person re-ID. In order to bridge the gap between unsupervised and supervised learning for FGVC, we investigate the essential factors (including feature extraction, clustering, and contrastive learning) for the performance gap between supervised and unsupervised FGVC. Furthermore, we propose a simple, effective, and practical method, termed as UFCL, to alleviate the gap. Three key issues are concerned and improved: First, we introduce a robust and powerful backbone, ResNet50-IBN, which has an ability of domain adaptation when we transfer ImageNet pre-trained models to FGVC tasks. Next, we propose to introduce HDBSCAN instead of DBSCAN to do clustering, which can generate better clusters for adjacent categories with fewer hyper-parameters. Finally, we propose a weighted feature agent and its updating mechanism to do contrastive learning by using the pseudo labels with inevitable noise, which can improve the optimization process of learning the parameters of the network. The effectiveness of our UFCL is verified on CUB-200-2011, Oxford-Flowers, Oxford-Pets, Stanford-Dogs, Stanford-Cars and FGVC-Aircraft datasets. Under the unsupervised FGVC setting, we achieve state-of-the-art results, and analyze the key factors and the important parameters to provide a practical guidance.
Long-tailed instance segmentation is a challenging task due to the extreme imbalance of training samples among classes. It causes severe biases of the head classes (with majority samples) against the tailed ones. This renders "how to appropriately define and alleviate the bias" one of the most important issues. Prior works mainly use label distribution or mean score information to indicate a coarse-grained bias. In this paper, we explore to excavate the confusion matrix, which carries the fine-grained misclassification details, to relieve the pairwise biases, generalizing the coarse one. To this end, we propose a novel Pairwise Class Balance (PCB) method, built upon a confusion matrix which is updated during training to accumulate the ongoing prediction preferences. PCB generates fightback soft labels for regularization during training. Besides, an iterative learning paradigm is developed to support a progressive and smooth regularization in such debiasing. PCB can be plugged and played to any existing method as a complement. Experimental results on LVIS demonstrate that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance without bells and whistles. Superior results across various architectures show the generalization ability.