We aim to investigate whether end-to-end learning of visual reasoning can be achieved with general-purpose neural networks, with the help of visual pretraining. A positive result would refute the common belief that explicit visual abstraction (e.g. object detection) is essential for compositional generalization on visual reasoning, and confirm the feasibility of a neural network "generalist" to solve visual recognition and reasoning tasks. We propose a simple and general self-supervised framework which "compresses" each video frame into a small set of tokens with a transformer network, and reconstructs the remaining frames based on the compressed temporal context. To minimize the reconstruction loss, the network must learn a compact representation for each image, as well as capture temporal dynamics and object permanence from temporal context. We perform evaluation on two visual reasoning benchmarks, CATER and ACRE. We observe that pretraining is essential to achieve compositional generalization for end-to-end visual reasoning. Our proposed framework outperforms traditional supervised pretraining, including image classification and explicit object detection, by large margins.
We propose a new task and model for dense video object captioning -- detecting, tracking, and captioning trajectories of all objects in a video. This task unifies spatial and temporal understanding of the video, and requires fine-grained language description. Our model for dense video object captioning is trained end-to-end and consists of different modules for spatial localization, tracking, and captioning. As such, we can train our model with a mixture of disjoint tasks, and leverage diverse, large-scale datasets which supervise different parts of our model. This results in noteworthy zero-shot performance. Moreover, by finetuning a model from this initialization, we can further improve our performance, surpassing strong image-based baselines by a significant margin. Although we are not aware of other work performing this task, we are able to repurpose existing video grounding datasets for our task, namely VidSTG and VLN. We show our task is more general than grounding, and models trained on our task can directly be applied to grounding by finding the bounding box with the maximum likelihood of generating the query sentence. Our model outperforms dedicated, state-of-the-art models for spatial grounding on both VidSTG and VLN.
Current state-of-the-art video models process a video clip as a long sequence of spatio-temporal tokens. However, they do not explicitly model objects, their interactions across the video, and instead process all the tokens in the video. In this paper, we investigate how we can use knowledge of objects to design better video models, namely to process fewer tokens and to improve recognition accuracy. This is in contrast to prior works which either drop tokens at the cost of accuracy, or increase accuracy whilst also increasing the computation required. First, we propose an object-guided token sampling strategy that enables us to retain a small fraction of the input tokens with minimal impact on accuracy. And second, we propose an object-aware attention module that enriches our feature representation with object information and improves overall accuracy. Our resulting framework achieves better performance when using fewer tokens than strong baselines. In particular, we match our baseline with 30%, 40%, and 60% of the input tokens on SomethingElse, Something-something v2, and Epic-Kitchens, respectively. When we use our model to process the same number of tokens as our baseline, we improve by 0.6 to 4.2 points on these datasets.
Observing the close relationship among panoptic, semantic and instance segmentation tasks, we propose to train a universal multi-dataset multi-task segmentation model: DaTaSeg.We use a shared representation (mask proposals with class predictions) for all tasks. To tackle task discrepancy, we adopt different merge operations and post-processing for different tasks. We also leverage weak-supervision, allowing our segmentation model to benefit from cheaper bounding box annotations. To share knowledge across datasets, we use text embeddings from the same semantic embedding space as classifiers and share all network parameters among datasets. We train DaTaSeg on ADE semantic, COCO panoptic, and Objects365 detection datasets. DaTaSeg improves performance on all datasets, especially small-scale datasets, achieving 54.0 mIoU on ADE semantic and 53.5 PQ on COCO panoptic. DaTaSeg also enables weakly-supervised knowledge transfer on ADE panoptic and Objects365 instance segmentation. Experiments show DaTaSeg scales with the number of training datasets and enables open-vocabulary segmentation through direct transfer. In addition, we annotate an Objects365 instance segmentation set of 1,000 images and will release it as a public benchmark.
Detection Transformer (DETR) directly transforms queries to unique objects by using one-to-one bipartite matching during training and enables end-to-end object detection. Recently, these models have surpassed traditional detectors on COCO with undeniable elegance. However, they differ from traditional detectors in multiple designs, including model architecture and training schedules, and thus the effectiveness of one-to-one matching is not fully understood. In this work, we conduct a strict comparison between the one-to-one Hungarian matching in DETRs and the one-to-many label assignments in traditional detectors with non-maximum supervision (NMS). Surprisingly, we observe one-to-many assignments with NMS consistently outperform standard one-to-one matching under the same setting, with a significant gain of up to 2.5 mAP. Our detector that trains Deformable-DETR with traditional IoU-based label assignment achieved 50.2 COCO mAP within 12 epochs (1x schedule) with ResNet50 backbone, outperforming all existing traditional or transformer-based detectors in this setting. On multiple datasets, schedules, and architectures, we consistently show bipartite matching is unnecessary for performant detection transformers. Furthermore, we attribute the success of detection transformers to their expressive transformer architecture. Code is available at https://github.com/jozhang97/DETA.
We present a novel transformer-based architecture for global multi-object tracking. Our network takes a short sequence of frames as input and produces global trajectories for all objects. The core component is a global tracking transformer that operates on objects from all frames in the sequence. The transformer encodes object features from all frames, and uses trajectory queries to group them into trajectories. The trajectory queries are object features from a single frame and naturally produce unique trajectories. Our global tracking transformer does not require intermediate pairwise grouping or combinatorial association, and can be jointly trained with an object detector. It achieves competitive performance on the popular MOT17 benchmark, with 75.3 MOTA and 59.1 HOTA. More importantly, our framework seamlessly integrates into state-of-the-art large-vocabulary detectors to track any objects. Experiments on the challenging TAO dataset show that our framework consistently improves upon baselines that are based on pairwise association, outperforming published works by a significant 7.7 tracking mAP. Code is available at https://github.com/xingyizhou/GTR.
Current object detectors are limited in vocabulary size due to the small scale of detection datasets. Image classifiers, on the other hand, reason about much larger vocabularies, as their datasets are larger and easier to collect. We propose Detic, which simply trains the classifiers of a detector on image classification data and thus expands the vocabulary of detectors to tens of thousands of concepts. Unlike prior work, Detic does not assign image labels to boxes based on model predictions, making it much easier to implement and compatible with a range of detection architectures and backbones. Our results show that Detic yields excellent detectors even for classes without box annotations. It outperforms prior work on both open-vocabulary and long-tail detection benchmarks. Detic provides a gain of 2.4 mAP for all classes and 8.3 mAP for novel classes on the open-vocabulary LVIS benchmark. On the standard LVIS benchmark, Detic reaches 41.7 mAP for all classes and 41.7 mAP for rare classes. For the first time, we train a detector with all the twenty-one-thousand classes of the ImageNet dataset and show that it generalizes to new datasets without fine-tuning. Code is available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/Detic.
Lidar-based sensing drives current autonomous vehicles. Despite rapid progress, current Lidar sensors still lag two decades behind traditional color cameras in terms of resolution and cost. For autonomous driving, this means that large objects close to the sensors are easily visible, but far-away or small objects comprise only one measurement or two. This is an issue, especially when these objects turn out to be driving hazards. On the other hand, these same objects are clearly visible in onboard RGB sensors. In this work, we present an approach to seamlessly fuse RGB sensors into Lidar-based 3D recognition. Our approach takes a set of 2D detections to generate dense 3D virtual points to augment an otherwise sparse 3D point cloud. These virtual points naturally integrate into any standard Lidar-based 3D detectors along with regular Lidar measurements. The resulting multi-modal detector is simple and effective. Experimental results on the large-scale nuScenes dataset show that our framework improves a strong CenterPoint baseline by a significant 6.6 mAP, and outperforms competing fusion approaches. Code and more visualizations are available at https://tianweiy.github.io/mvp/
We develop a probabilistic interpretation of two-stage object detection. We show that this probabilistic interpretation motivates a number of common empirical training practices. It also suggests changes to two-stage detection pipelines. Specifically, the first stage should infer proper object-vs-background likelihoods, which should then inform the overall score of the detector. A standard region proposal network (RPN) cannot infer this likelihood sufficiently well, but many one-stage detectors can. We show how to build a probabilistic two-stage detector from any state-of-the-art one-stage detector. The resulting detectors are faster and more accurate than both their one- and two-stage precursors. Our detector achieves 56.4 mAP on COCO test-dev with single-scale testing, outperforming all published results. Using a lightweight backbone, our detector achieves 49.2 mAP on COCO at 33 fps on a Titan Xp, outperforming the popular YOLOv4 model.