To enhance the domain-specific capabilities of large language models, continued pre-training on a domain-specific corpus is a prevalent method. Recent work demonstrates that adapting models using reading comprehension data formatted by regex-based patterns can significantly improve performance on domain-specific tasks. However, regex-based patterns are incapable of parsing raw corpora using domain-specific knowledge. Furthermore, the question and answer pairs are extracted directly from the corpus in predefined formats offers limited context. To address this limitation, we improve reading comprehension via LLM and clustering. LLM focuses on leveraging domain knowledge within the corpus to refine comprehension stage, while clustering supplies relevant knowledge by extending the context to enrich reading stage. Additionally, our method incorporates parameter-efficient fine-tuning to improve the efficiency of domain adaptation. In comparison to AdaptLLM, our method achieves an improvement exceeding 5% in domain-specific tasks. Our code will available at https://github.com/microsoft/LMOps.
Generative retrieval, which is a new advanced paradigm for document retrieval, has recently attracted research interests, since it encodes all documents into the model and directly generates the retrieved documents. However, its power is still underutilized since it heavily relies on the "preprocessed" document identifiers (docids), thus limiting its retrieval performance and ability to retrieve new documents. In this paper, we propose a novel fully end-to-end retrieval paradigm. It can not only end-to-end learn the best docids for existing and new documents automatically via a semantic indexing module, but also perform end-to-end document retrieval via an encoder-decoder-based generative model, namely Auto Search Indexer (ASI). Besides, we design a reparameterization mechanism to combine the above two modules into a joint optimization framework. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our model over advanced baselines on both public and industrial datasets and also verify the ability to deal with new documents.
Large language models (LLMs) exhibit impressive emergent abilities in natural language processing, but their democratization is hindered due to huge computation requirements and closed-source nature. Recent research on advancing open-source smaller LMs by distilling knowledge from black-box LLMs has obtained promising results in the instruction-following ability. However, the reasoning ability which is more challenging to foster, is relatively rarely explored. In this paper, we propose a tailored learning approach to distill such reasoning ability to smaller LMs to facilitate the democratization of the exclusive reasoning ability. In contrast to merely employing LLM as a data annotator, we exploit the potential of LLM as a reasoning teacher by building an interactive multi-round learning paradigm. This paradigm enables the student to expose its deficiencies to the black-box teacher who then can provide customized training data in return. Further, to exploit the reasoning potential of the smaller LM, we propose self-reflection learning to motivate the student to learn from self-made mistakes. The learning from self-reflection and LLM are all tailored to the student's learning status, thanks to the seamless integration with the multi-round learning paradigm. Comprehensive experiments and analysis on mathematical and commonsense reasoning tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. The code will be available at https://github.com/Raibows/Learn-to-Reason.
Embedding-based retrieval methods construct vector indices to search for document representations that are most similar to the query representations. They are widely used in document retrieval due to low latency and decent recall performance. Recent research indicates that deep retrieval solutions offer better model quality, but are hindered by unacceptable serving latency and the inability to support document updates. In this paper, we aim to enhance the vector index with end-to-end deep generative models, leveraging the differentiable advantages of deep retrieval models while maintaining desirable serving efficiency. We propose Model-enhanced Vector Index (MEVI), a differentiable model-enhanced index empowered by a twin-tower representation model. MEVI leverages a Residual Quantization (RQ) codebook to bridge the sequence-to-sequence deep retrieval and embedding-based models. To substantially reduce the inference time, instead of decoding the unique document ids in long sequential steps, we first generate some semantic virtual cluster ids of candidate documents in a small number of steps, and then leverage the well-adapted embedding vectors to further perform a fine-grained search for the relevant documents in the candidate virtual clusters. We empirically show that our model achieves better performance on the commonly used academic benchmarks MSMARCO Passage and Natural Questions, with comparable serving latency to dense retrieval solutions.
Recent advancements in large language models (LLMs) on language modeling and emergent capabilities make them a promising reference-free evaluator of natural language generation quality, and a competent alternative to human evaluation. However, hindered by the closed-source or high computational demand to host and tune, there is a lack of practice to further calibrate an off-the-shelf LLM-based evaluator towards better human alignment. In this work, we propose AutoCalibrate, a multi-stage, gradient-free approach to automatically calibrate and align an LLM-based evaluator toward human preference. Instead of explicitly modeling human preferences, we first implicitly encompass them within a set of human labels. Then, an initial set of scoring criteria is drafted by the language model itself, leveraging in-context learning on different few-shot examples. To further calibrate this set of criteria, we select the best performers and re-draft them with self-refinement. Our experiments on multiple text quality evaluation datasets illustrate a significant improvement in correlation with expert evaluation through calibration. Our comprehensive qualitative analysis conveys insightful intuitions and observations on the essence of effective scoring criteria.
Although deep pre-trained language models have shown promising benefit in a large set of industrial scenarios, including Click-Through-Rate (CTR) prediction, how to integrate pre-trained language models that handle only textual signals into a prediction pipeline with non-textual features is challenging. Up to now two directions have been explored to integrate multi-modal inputs in fine-tuning of pre-trained language models. One consists of fusing the outcome of language models and non-textual features through an aggregation layer, resulting into ensemble framework, where the cross-information between textual and non-textual inputs are only learned in the aggregation layer. The second one consists of splitting non-textual features into fine-grained fragments and transforming the fragments to new tokens combined with textual ones, so that they can be fed directly to transformer layers in language models. However, this approach increases the complexity of the learning and inference because of the numerous additional tokens. To address these limitations, we propose in this work a novel framework BERT4CTR, with the Uni-Attention mechanism that can benefit from the interactions between non-textual and textual features while maintaining low time-costs in training and inference through a dimensionality reduction. Comprehensive experiments on both public and commercial data demonstrate that BERT4CTR can outperform significantly the state-of-the-art frameworks to handle multi-modal inputs and be applicable to CTR prediction.
Deploying pre-trained transformer models like BERT on downstream tasks in resource-constrained scenarios is challenging due to their high inference cost, which grows rapidly with input sequence length. In this work, we propose a constraint-aware and ranking-distilled token pruning method ToP, which selectively removes unnecessary tokens as input sequence passes through layers, allowing the model to improve online inference speed while preserving accuracy. ToP overcomes the limitation of inaccurate token importance ranking in the conventional self-attention mechanism through a ranking-distilled token distillation technique, which distills effective token rankings from the final layer of unpruned models to early layers of pruned models. Then, ToP introduces a coarse-to-fine pruning approach that automatically selects the optimal subset of transformer layers and optimizes token pruning decisions within these layers through improved $L_0$ regularization. Extensive experiments on GLUE benchmark and SQuAD tasks demonstrate that ToP outperforms state-of-the-art token pruning and model compression methods with improved accuracy and speedups. ToP reduces the average FLOPs of BERT by 8.1x while achieving competitive accuracy on GLUE, and provides a real latency speedup of up to 7.4x on an Intel CPU.
Embedding models have shown great power in knowledge graph completion (KGC) task. By learning structural constraints for each training triple, these methods implicitly memorize intrinsic relation rules to infer missing links. However, this paper points out that the multi-hop relation rules are hard to be reliably memorized due to the inherent deficiencies of such implicit memorization strategy, making embedding models underperform in predicting links between distant entity pairs. To alleviate this problem, we present Vertical Learning Paradigm (VLP), which extends embedding models by allowing to explicitly copy target information from related factual triples for more accurate prediction. Rather than solely relying on the implicit memory, VLP directly provides additional cues to improve the generalization ability of embedding models, especially making the distant link prediction significantly easier. Moreover, we also propose a novel relative distance based negative sampling technique (ReD) for more effective optimization. Experiments demonstrate the validity and generality of our proposals on two standard benchmarks. Our code is available at https://github.com/rui9812/VLP.
* Accepted to ACL 2023 Main Conference (Long Paper)