Large Language Models (LLMs) have greatly propelled the progress in natural language(NL)-centric tasks based on NL interface. However, the NL form is not enough for world knowledge. Current works focus on this question by injecting specific symbolic knowledge into LLM, which ignore two critical challenges: the interrelations between various symbols and the balance between symbolic-centric and NL-centric capabilities. In this work, we tackle these challenges from both a data and framework perspective and introduce Symbol-LLM series models. First, we collect 34 symbolic tasks, covering ~20 different forms, which are unified to capture symbol interrelations. Then, a two-stage tuning framework succeeds in injecting symbolic knowledge without loss of the generality ability. Extensive experiments on both symbol- and NL-centric tasks demonstrate the balanced and superior performances of Symbol-LLM series models.
The utilization of large language models (LLMs) in the Healthcare domain has generated both excitement and concern due to their ability to effectively respond to freetext queries with certain professional knowledge. This survey outlines the capabilities of the currently developed LLMs for Healthcare and explicates their development process, with the aim of providing an overview of the development roadmap from traditional Pretrained Language Models (PLMs) to LLMs. Specifically, we first explore the potential of LLMs to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of various Healthcare applications highlighting both the strengths and limitations. Secondly, we conduct a comparison between the previous PLMs and the latest LLMs, as well as comparing various LLMs with each other. Then we summarize related Healthcare training data, training methods, optimization strategies, and usage. Finally, the unique concerns associated with deploying LLMs in Healthcare settings are investigated, particularly regarding fairness, accountability, transparency and ethics. Our survey provide a comprehensive investigation from perspectives of both computer science and Healthcare specialty. Besides the discussion about Healthcare concerns, we supports the computer science community by compiling a collection of open source resources, such as accessible datasets, the latest methodologies, code implementations, and evaluation benchmarks in the Github. Summarily, we contend that a significant paradigm shift is underway, transitioning from PLMs to LLMs. This shift encompasses a move from discriminative AI approaches to generative AI approaches, as well as a shift from model-centered methodologies to datacentered methodologies.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved great success in various natural language tasks. It has aroused much interest in evaluating the specific reasoning capability of LLMs, such as multilingual reasoning and mathematical reasoning. However, as one of the key reasoning perspectives, logical reasoning capability has not yet been thoroughly evaluated. In this work, we aim to bridge those gaps and provide comprehensive evaluations. Firstly, to offer systematic evaluations, this paper selects fifteen typical logical reasoning datasets and organizes them into deductive, inductive, abductive and mixed-form reasoning settings. Considering the comprehensiveness of evaluations, we include three representative LLMs (i.e., text-davinci-003, ChatGPT and BARD) and evaluate them on all selected datasets under zero-shot, one-shot and three-shot settings. Secondly, different from previous evaluations relying only on simple metrics (e.g., accuracy), we propose fine-level evaluations from objective and subjective manners, covering both answers and explanations. Also, to uncover the logical flaws of LLMs, bad cases will be attributed to five error types from two dimensions. Thirdly, to avoid the influences of knowledge bias and purely focus on benchmarking the logical reasoning capability of LLMs, we propose a new dataset with neutral content. It contains 3K samples and covers deductive, inductive and abductive reasoning settings. Based on the in-depth evaluations, this paper finally concludes the ability maps of logical reasoning capability from six dimensions (i.e., correct, rigorous, self-aware, active, oriented and no hallucination). It reflects the pros and cons of LLMs and gives guiding directions for future works.
Logical reasoning task involves diverse types of complex reasoning over text, based on the form of multiple-choice question answering. Given the context, question and a set of options as the input, previous methods achieve superior performances on the full-data setting. However, the current benchmark dataset has the ideal assumption that the reasoning type distribution on the train split is close to the test split, which is inconsistent with many real application scenarios. To address it, there remain two problems to be studied: (1) How is the zero-shot capability of the models (train on seen types and test on unseen types)? (2) How to enhance the perception of reasoning types for the models? For problem 1, we propose a new benchmark for generalized zero-shot logical reasoning, named ZsLR. It includes six splits based on the three type sampling strategies. For problem 2, a type-aware model TaCo is proposed. It utilizes both the heuristic input reconstruction and the contrastive learning to improve the type perception in the global representation. Extensive experiments on both the zero-shot and full-data settings prove the superiority of TaCo over the state-of-the-art methods. Also, we experiment and verify the generalization capability of TaCo on other logical reasoning dataset.
Machine reading comprehension has aroused wide concerns, since it explores the potential of model for text understanding. To further equip the machine with the reasoning capability, the challenging task of logical reasoning is proposed. Previous works on logical reasoning have proposed some strategies to extract the logical units from different aspects. However, there still remains a challenge to model the long distance dependency among the logical units. Also, it is demanding to uncover the logical structures of the text and further fuse the discrete logic to the continuous text embedding. To tackle the above issues, we propose an end-to-end model Logiformer which utilizes a two-branch graph transformer network for logical reasoning of text. Firstly, we introduce different extraction strategies to split the text into two sets of logical units, and construct the logical graph and the syntax graph respectively. The logical graph models the causal relations for the logical branch while the syntax graph captures the co-occurrence relations for the syntax branch. Secondly, to model the long distance dependency, the node sequence from each graph is fed into the fully connected graph transformer structures. The two adjacent matrices are viewed as the attention biases for the graph transformer layers, which map the discrete logical structures to the continuous text embedding space. Thirdly, a dynamic gate mechanism and a question-aware self-attention module are introduced before the answer prediction to update the features. The reasoning process provides the interpretability by employing the logical units, which are consistent with human cognition. The experimental results show the superiority of our model, which outperforms the state-of-the-art single model on two logical reasoning benchmarks.
Textbook Question Answering (TQA) is a complex multimodal task to infer answers given large context descriptions and abundant diagrams. Compared with Visual Question Answering (VQA), TQA contains a large number of uncommon terminologies and various diagram inputs. It brings new challenges to the representation capability of language model for domain-specific spans. And it also pushes the multimodal fusion to a more complex level. To tackle the above issues, we propose a novel model named MoCA, which incorporates multi-stage domain pretraining and multimodal cross attention for the TQA task. Firstly, we introduce a multi-stage domain pretraining module to conduct unsupervised post-pretraining with the span mask strategy and supervised pre-finetune. Especially for domain post-pretraining, we propose a heuristic generation algorithm to employ the terminology corpus. Secondly, to fully consider the rich inputs of context and diagrams, we propose cross-guided multimodal attention to update the features of text, question diagram and instructional diagram based on a progressive strategy. Further, a dual gating mechanism is adopted to improve the model ensemble. The experimental results show the superiority of our model, which outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by 2.21% and 2.43% for validation and test split respectively.
Relation reasoning in knowledge graphs (KGs) aims at predicting missing relations in incomplete triples, whereas the dominant paradigm is learning the embeddings of relations and entities, which is limited to a transductive setting and has restriction on processing unseen entities in an inductive situation. Previous inductive methods are scalable and consume less resource. They utilize the structure of entities and triples in subgraphs to own inductive ability. However, in order to obtain better reasoning results, the model should acquire entity-independent relational semantics in latent rules and solve the deficient supervision caused by scarcity of rules in subgraphs. To address these issues, we propose a novel graph convolutional network (GCN)-based approach for interpretable inductive reasoning with relational path contrast, named RPC-IR. RPC-IR firstly extracts relational paths between two entities and learns representations of them, and then innovatively introduces a contrastive strategy by constructing positive and negative relational paths. A joint training strategy considering both supervised and contrastive information is also proposed. Comprehensive experiments on three inductive datasets show that RPC-IR achieves outstanding performance comparing with the latest inductive reasoning methods and could explicitly represent logical rules for interpretability.
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