As a type of biometric identification, a speaker identification (SID) system is confronted with various kinds of attacks. The spoofing attacks typically imitate the timbre of the target speakers, while the adversarial attacks confuse the SID system by adding a well-designed adversarial perturbation to an arbitrary speech. Although the spoofing attack copies a similar timbre as the victim, it does not exploit the vulnerability of the SID model and may not make the SID system give the attacker's desired decision. As for the adversarial attack, despite the SID system can be led to a designated decision, it cannot meet the specified text or speaker timbre requirements for the specific attack scenarios. In this study, to make the attack in SID not only leverage the vulnerability of the SID model but also reserve the timbre of the target speaker, we propose a timbre-reserved adversarial attack in the speaker identification. We generate the timbre-reserved adversarial audios by adding an adversarial constraint during the different training stages of the voice conversion (VC) model. Specifically, the adversarial constraint is using the target speaker label to optimize the adversarial perturbation added to the VC model representations and is implemented by a speaker classifier joining in the VC model training. The adversarial constraint can help to control the VC model to generate the speaker-wised audio. Eventually, the inference of the VC model is the ideal adversarial fake audio, which is timbre-reserved and can fool the SID system.
By incorporating additional contextual information, deep biasing methods have emerged as a promising solution for speech recognition of personalized words. However, for real-world voice assistants, always biasing on such personalized words with high prediction scores can significantly degrade the performance of recognizing common words. To address this issue, we propose an adaptive contextual biasing method based on Context-Aware Transformer Transducer (CATT) that utilizes the biased encoder and predictor embeddings to perform streaming prediction of contextual phrase occurrences. Such prediction is then used to dynamically switch the bias list on and off, enabling the model to adapt to both personalized and common scenarios. Experiments on Librispeech and internal voice assistant datasets show that our approach can achieve up to 6.7% and 20.7% relative reduction in WER and CER compared to the baseline respectively, mitigating up to 96.7% and 84.9% of the relative WER and CER increase for common cases. Furthermore, our approach has a minimal performance impact in personalized scenarios while maintaining a streaming inference pipeline with negligible RTF increase.
In this study, we propose a timbre-reserved adversarial attack approach for speaker identification (SID) to not only exploit the weakness of the SID model but also preserve the timbre of the target speaker in a black-box attack setting. Particularly, we generate timbre-reserved fake audio by adding an adversarial constraint during the training of the voice conversion model. Then, we leverage a pseudo-Siamese network architecture to learn from the black-box SID model constraining both intrinsic similarity and structural similarity simultaneously. The intrinsic similarity loss is to learn an intrinsic invariance, while the structural similarity loss is to ensure that the substitute SID model shares a similar decision boundary to the fixed black-box SID model. The substitute model can be used as a proxy to generate timbre-reserved fake audio for attacking. Experimental results on the Audio Deepfake Detection (ADD) challenge dataset indicate that the attack success rate of our proposed approach yields up to 60.58% and 55.38% in the white-box and black-box scenarios, respectively, and can deceive both human beings and machines.
The recently proposed serialized output training (SOT) simplifies multi-talker automatic speech recognition (ASR) by generating speaker transcriptions separated by a special token. However, frequent speaker changes can make speaker change prediction difficult. To address this, we propose boundary-aware serialized output training (BA-SOT), which explicitly incorporates boundary knowledge into the decoder via a speaker change detection task and boundary constraint loss. We also introduce a two-stage connectionist temporal classification (CTC) strategy that incorporates token-level SOT CTC to restore temporal context information. Besides typical character error rate (CER), we introduce utterance-dependent character error rate (UD-CER) to further measure the precision of speaker change prediction. Compared to original SOT, BA-SOT reduces CER/UD-CER by 5.1%/14.0%, and leveraging a pre-trained ASR model for BA-SOT model initialization further reduces CER/UD-CER by 8.4%/19.9%.
UniSpeech has achieved superior performance in cross-lingual automatic speech recognition (ASR) by explicitly aligning latent representations to phoneme units using multi-task self-supervised learning. While the learned representations transfer well from high-resource to low-resource languages, predicting words directly from these phonetic representations in downstream ASR is challenging. In this paper, we propose TranUSR, a two-stage model comprising a pre-trained UniData2vec and a phoneme-to-word Transcoder. Different from UniSpeech, UniData2vec replaces the quantized discrete representations with continuous and contextual representations from a teacher model for phonetically-aware pre-training. Then, Transcoder learns to translate phonemes to words with the aid of extra texts, enabling direct word generation. Experiments on Common Voice show that UniData2vec reduces PER by 5.3\% compared to UniSpeech, while Transcoder yields a 14.4\% WER reduction compared to grapheme fine-tuning.
Contextual information plays a crucial role in speech recognition technologies and incorporating it into the end-to-end speech recognition models has drawn immense interest recently. However, previous deep bias methods lacked explicit supervision for bias tasks. In this study, we introduce a contextual phrase prediction network for an attention-based deep bias method. This network predicts context phrases in utterances using contextual embeddings and calculates bias loss to assist in the training of the contextualized model. Our method achieved a significant word error rate (WER) reduction across various end-to-end speech recognition models. Experiments on the LibriSpeech corpus show that our proposed model obtains a 12.1% relative WER improvement over the baseline model, and the WER of the context phrases decreases relatively by 40.5%. Moreover, by applying a context phrase filtering strategy, we also effectively eliminate the WER degradation when using a larger biasing list.
The performance of the keyword spotting (KWS) system based on audio modality, commonly measured in false alarms and false rejects, degrades significantly under the far field and noisy conditions. Therefore, audio-visual keyword spotting, which leverages complementary relationships over multiple modalities, has recently gained much attention. However, current studies mainly focus on combining the exclusively learned representations of different modalities, instead of exploring the modal relationships during each respective modeling. In this paper, we propose a novel visual modality enhanced end-to-end KWS framework (VE-KWS), which fuses audio and visual modalities from two aspects. The first one is utilizing the speaker location information obtained from the lip region in videos to assist the training of multi-channel audio beamformer. By involving the beamformer as an audio enhancement module, the acoustic distortions, caused by the far field or noisy environments, could be significantly suppressed. The other one is conducting cross-attention between different modalities to capture the inter-modal relationships and help the representation learning of each modality. Experiments on the MSIP challenge corpus show that our proposed model achieves 2.79% false rejection rate and 2.95% false alarm rate on the Eval set, resulting in a new SOTA performance compared with the top-ranking systems in the ICASSP2022 MISP challenge.
This paper describes our NPU-ASLP system for the Audio-Visual Diarization and Recognition (AVDR) task in the Multi-modal Information based Speech Processing (MISP) 2022 Challenge. Specifically, the weighted prediction error (WPE) and guided source separation (GSS) techniques are used to reduce reverberation and generate clean signals for each single speaker first. Then, we explore the effectiveness of Branchformer and E-Branchformer based ASR systems. To better make use of the visual modality, a cross-attention based multi-modal fusion module is proposed, which explicitly learns the contextual relationship between different modalities. Experiments show that our system achieves a concatenated minimum-permutation character error rate (cpCER) of 28.13\% and 31.21\% on the Dev and Eval set, and obtains second place in the challenge.
Self-supervised speech pre-training empowers the model with the contextual structure inherent in the speech signal while self-supervised text pre-training empowers the model with linguistic information. Both of them are beneficial for downstream speech tasks such as ASR. However, the distinct pre-training objectives make it challenging to jointly optimize the speech and text representation in the same model. To solve this problem, we propose Text-Enhanced Self-Supervised Speech Pre-training (TESSP), aiming to incorporate the linguistic information into speech pre-training. Our model consists of three parts, i.e., a speech encoder, a text encoder and a shared encoder. The model takes unsupervised speech and text data as the input and leverages the common HuBERT and MLM losses respectively. We also propose phoneme up-sampling and representation swapping to enable joint modeling of the speech and text information. Specifically, to fix the length mismatching problem between speech and text data, we phonemize the text sequence and up-sample the phonemes with the alignment information extracted from a small set of supervised data. Moreover, to close the gap between the learned speech and text representations, we swap the text representation with the speech representation extracted by the respective private encoders according to the alignment information. Experiments on the Librispeech dataset shows the proposed TESSP model achieves more than 10% improvement compared with WavLM on the test-clean and test-other sets. We also evaluate our model on the SUPERB benchmark, showing our model has better performance on Phoneme Recognition, Acoustic Speech Recognition and Speech Translation compared with WavLM.