Story visualization aims to generate a series of images that match the story described in texts, and it requires the generated images to satisfy high quality, alignment with the text description, and consistency in character identities. Given the complexity of story visualization, existing methods drastically simplify the problem by considering only a few specific characters and scenarios, or requiring the users to provide per-image control conditions such as sketches. However, these simplifications render these methods incompetent for real applications. To this end, we propose an automated story visualization system that can effectively generate diverse, high-quality, and consistent sets of story images, with minimal human interactions. Specifically, we utilize the comprehension and planning capabilities of large language models for layout planning, and then leverage large-scale text-to-image models to generate sophisticated story images based on the layout. We empirically find that sparse control conditions, such as bounding boxes, are suitable for layout planning, while dense control conditions, e.g., sketches and keypoints, are suitable for generating high-quality image content. To obtain the best of both worlds, we devise a dense condition generation module to transform simple bounding box layouts into sketch or keypoint control conditions for final image generation, which not only improves the image quality but also allows easy and intuitive user interactions. In addition, we propose a simple yet effective method to generate multi-view consistent character images, eliminating the reliance on human labor to collect or draw character images.
Finding corresponding pixels within a pair of images is a fundamental computer vision task with various applications. Due to the specific requirements of different tasks like optical flow estimation and local feature matching, previous works are primarily categorized into dense matching and sparse feature matching focusing on specialized architectures along with task-specific datasets, which may somewhat hinder the generalization performance of specialized models. In this paper, we propose a deep model for sparse and dense matching, termed RGM (Robust Generalist Matching). In particular, we elaborately design a cascaded GRU module for refinement by exploring the geometric similarity iteratively at multiple scales following an additional uncertainty estimation module for sparsification. To narrow the gap between synthetic training samples and real-world scenarios, we build a new, large-scale dataset with sparse correspondence ground truth by generating optical flow supervision with greater intervals. As such, we are able to mix up various dense and sparse matching datasets, significantly improving the training diversity. The generalization capacity of our proposed RGM is greatly improved by learning the matching and uncertainty estimation in a two-stage manner on the large, mixed data. Superior performance is achieved for zero-shot matching and downstream geometry estimation across multiple datasets, outperforming the previous methods by a large margin.
By comparing the original and target prompts in editing task, we can obtain numerous editing pairs, each comprising an object and its corresponding editing target. To allow editability while maintaining fidelity to the input image, existing editing methods typically involve a fixed number of inversion steps that project the whole input image to its noisier latent representation, followed by a denoising process guided by the target prompt. However, we find that the optimal number of inversion steps for achieving ideal editing results varies significantly among different editing pairs, owing to varying editing difficulties. Therefore, the current literature, which relies on a fixed number of inversion steps, produces sub-optimal generation quality, especially when handling multiple editing pairs in a natural image. To this end, we propose a new image editing paradigm, dubbed Object-aware Inversion and Reassembly (OIR), to enable object-level fine-grained editing. Specifically, we design a new search metric, which determines the optimal inversion steps for each editing pair, by jointly considering the editability of the target and the fidelity of the non-editing region. We use our search metric to find the optimal inversion step for each editing pair when editing an image. We then edit these editing pairs separately to avoid concept mismatch. Subsequently, we propose an additional reassembly step to seamlessly integrate the respective editing results and the non-editing region to obtain the final edited image. To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we collect two datasets for benchmarking single- and multi-object editing, respectively. Experiments demonstrate that our method achieves superior performance in editing object shapes, colors, materials, categories, etc., especially in multi-object editing scenarios.
Innovations like protein diffusion have enabled significant progress in de novo protein design, which is a vital topic in life science. These methods typically depend on protein structure encoders to model residue backbone frames, where atoms do not exist. Most prior encoders rely on atom-wise features, such as angles and distances between atoms, which are not available in this context. Thus far, only several simple encoders, such as IPA, have been proposed for this scenario, exposing the frame modeling as a bottleneck. In this work, we proffer the Vector Field Network (VFN), which enables network layers to perform learnable vector computations between coordinates of frame-anchored virtual atoms, thus achieving a higher capability for modeling frames. The vector computation operates in a manner similar to a linear layer, with each input channel receiving 3D virtual atom coordinates instead of scalar values. The multiple feature vectors output by the vector computation are then used to update the residue representations and virtual atom coordinates via attention aggregation. Remarkably, VFN also excels in modeling both frames and atoms, as the real atoms can be treated as the virtual atoms for modeling, positioning VFN as a potential universal encoder. In protein diffusion (frame modeling), VFN exhibits an impressive performance advantage over IPA, excelling in terms of both designability (67.04% vs. 53.58%) and diversity (66.54% vs. 51.98%). In inverse folding (frame and atom modeling), VFN outperforms the previous SoTA model, PiFold (54.7% vs. 51.66%), on sequence recovery rate. We also propose a method of equipping VFN with the ESM model, which significantly surpasses the previous ESM-based SoTA (62.67% vs. 55.65%), LM-Design, by a substantial margin.
In this article, we investigate self-supervised 3D scene flow estimation and class-agnostic motion prediction on point clouds. A realistic scene can be well modeled as a collection of rigidly moving parts, therefore its scene flow can be represented as a combination of the rigid motion of these individual parts. Building upon this observation, we propose to generate pseudo scene flow labels for self-supervised learning through piecewise rigid motion estimation, in which the source point cloud is decomposed into local regions and each region is treated as rigid. By rigidly aligning each region with its potential counterpart in the target point cloud, we obtain a region-specific rigid transformation to generate its pseudo flow labels. To mitigate the impact of potential outliers on label generation, when solving the rigid registration for each region, we alternately perform three steps: establishing point correspondences, measuring the confidence for the correspondences, and updating the rigid transformation based on the correspondences and their confidence. As a result, confident correspondences will dominate label generation and a validity mask will be derived for the generated pseudo labels. By using the pseudo labels together with their validity mask for supervision, models can be trained in a self-supervised manner. Extensive experiments on FlyingThings3D and KITTI datasets demonstrate that our method achieves new state-of-the-art performance in self-supervised scene flow learning, without any ground truth scene flow for supervision, even performing better than some supervised counterparts. Additionally, our method is further extended to class-agnostic motion prediction and significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art self-supervised methods on nuScenes dataset.
In contrast to numerous NLP and 2D computer vision foundational models, the learning of a robust and highly generalized 3D foundational model poses considerably greater challenges. This is primarily due to the inherent data variability and the diversity of downstream tasks. In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive 3D pre-training framework designed to facilitate the acquisition of efficient 3D representations, thereby establishing a pathway to 3D foundational models. Motivated by the fact that informative 3D features should be able to encode rich geometry and appearance cues that can be utilized to render realistic images, we propose a novel universal paradigm to learn point cloud representations by differentiable neural rendering, serving as a bridge between 3D and 2D worlds. We train a point cloud encoder within a devised volumetric neural renderer by comparing the rendered images with the real images. Notably, our approach demonstrates the seamless integration of the learned 3D encoder into diverse downstream tasks. These tasks encompass not only high-level challenges such as 3D detection and segmentation but also low-level objectives like 3D reconstruction and image synthesis, spanning both indoor and outdoor scenarios. Besides, we also illustrate the capability of pre-training a 2D backbone using the proposed universal methodology, surpassing conventional pre-training methods by a large margin. For the first time, PonderV2 achieves state-of-the-art performance on 11 indoor and outdoor benchmarks. The consistent improvements in various settings imply the effectiveness of the proposed method. Code and models will be made available at https://github.com/OpenGVLab/PonderV2.
In this study, we address the challenge of 3D scene structure recovery from monocular depth estimation. While traditional depth estimation methods leverage labeled datasets to directly predict absolute depth, recent advancements advocate for mix-dataset training, enhancing generalization across diverse scenes. However, such mixed dataset training yields depth predictions only up to an unknown scale and shift, hindering accurate 3D reconstructions. Existing solutions necessitate extra 3D datasets or geometry-complete depth annotations, constraints that limit their versatility. In this paper, we propose a learning framework that trains models to predict geometry-preserving depth without requiring extra data or annotations. To produce realistic 3D structures, we render novel views of the reconstructed scenes and design loss functions to promote depth estimation consistency across different views. Comprehensive experiments underscore our framework's superior generalization capabilities, surpassing existing state-of-the-art methods on several benchmark datasets without leveraging extra training information. Moreover, our innovative loss functions empower the model to autonomously recover domain-specific scale-and-shift coefficients using solely unlabeled images.
The remarkable multimodal capabilities demonstrated by OpenAI's GPT-4 have sparked significant interest in the development of multimodal Large Language Models (LLMs). A primary research objective of such models is to align visual and textual modalities effectively while comprehending human instructions. Current methodologies often rely on annotations derived from benchmark datasets to construct image-dialogue datasets for training purposes, akin to instruction tuning in LLMs. However, these datasets often exhibit domain bias, potentially constraining the generative capabilities of the models. In an effort to mitigate these limitations, we propose a novel data collection methodology that synchronously synthesizes images and dialogues for visual instruction tuning. This approach harnesses the power of generative models, marrying the abilities of ChatGPT and text-to-image generative models to yield a diverse and controllable dataset with varied image content. This not only provides greater flexibility compared to existing methodologies but also significantly enhances several model capabilities. Our research includes comprehensive experiments conducted on various datasets using the open-source LLAVA model as a testbed for our proposed pipeline. Our results underscore marked enhancements across more than ten commonly assessed capabilities,
In this work, by re-examining the "matching" nature of Anomaly Detection (AD), we propose a new AD framework that simultaneously enjoys new records of AD accuracy and dramatically high running speed. In this framework, the anomaly detection problem is solved via a cascade patch retrieval procedure that retrieves the nearest neighbors for each test image patch in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Given a test sample, the top-K most similar training images are first selected based on a robust histogram matching process. Secondly, the nearest neighbor of each test patch is retrieved over the similar geometrical locations on those "global nearest neighbors", by using a carefully trained local metric. Finally, the anomaly score of each test image patch is calculated based on the distance to its "local nearest neighbor" and the "non-background" probability. The proposed method is termed "Cascade Patch Retrieval" (CPR) in this work. Different from the conventional patch-matching-based AD algorithms, CPR selects proper "targets" (reference images and locations) before "shooting" (patch-matching). On the well-acknowledged MVTec AD, BTAD and MVTec-3D AD datasets, the proposed algorithm consistently outperforms all the comparing SOTA methods by remarkable margins, measured by various AD metrics. Furthermore, CPR is extremely efficient. It runs at the speed of 113 FPS with the standard setting while its simplified version only requires less than 1 ms to process an image at the cost of a trivial accuracy drop. The code of CPR is available at https://github.com/flyinghu123/CPR.