Pre-trained large language models (LLMs) have powerful capabilities for generating creative natural text. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can discover diverse solutions to complex real-world problems. Motivated by the common collective and directionality of text sequence generation and evolution, this paper illustrates the strong consistency of LLMs and EAs, which includes multiple one-to-one key characteristics: token embedding and genotype-phenotype mapping, position encoding and fitness shaping, position embedding and selection, attention and crossover, feed-forward neural network and mutation, model training and parameter update, and multi-task learning and multi-objective optimization. Based on this consistency perspective, existing coupling studies are analyzed, including evolutionary fine-tuning and LLM-enhanced EAs. Leveraging these insights, we outline a fundamental roadmap for future research in coupling LLMs and EAs, while highlighting key challenges along the way. The consistency not only reveals the evolution mechanism behind LLMs but also facilitates the development of evolved artificial agents that approach or surpass biological organisms.
In scenarios with long-tailed distributions, the model's ability to identify tail classes is limited due to the under-representation of tail samples. Class rebalancing, information augmentation, and other techniques have been proposed to facilitate models to learn the potential distribution of tail classes. The disadvantage is that these methods generally pursue models with balanced class accuracy on the data manifold, while ignoring the ability of the model to resist interference. By constructing noisy data manifold, we found that the robustness of models trained on unbalanced data has a long-tail phenomenon. That is, even if the class accuracy is balanced on the data domain, it still has bias on the noisy data manifold. However, existing methods cannot effectively mitigate the above phenomenon, which makes the model vulnerable in long-tailed scenarios. In this work, we propose an Orthogonal Uncertainty Representation (OUR) of feature embedding and an end-to-end training strategy to improve the long-tail phenomenon of model robustness. As a general enhancement tool, OUR has excellent compatibility with other methods and does not require additional data generation, ensuring fast and efficient training. Comprehensive evaluations on long-tailed datasets show that our method significantly improves the long-tail phenomenon of robustness, bringing consistent performance gains to other long-tailed learning methods.
To address the challenges of long-tailed classification, researchers have proposed several approaches to reduce model bias, most of which assume that classes with few samples are weak classes. However, recent studies have shown that tail classes are not always hard to learn, and model bias has been observed on sample-balanced datasets, suggesting the existence of other factors that affect model bias. In this work, we systematically propose a series of geometric measurements for perceptual manifolds in deep neural networks, and then explore the effect of the geometric characteristics of perceptual manifolds on classification difficulty and how learning shapes the geometric characteristics of perceptual manifolds. An unanticipated finding is that the correlation between the class accuracy and the separation degree of perceptual manifolds gradually decreases during training, while the negative correlation with the curvature gradually increases, implying that curvature imbalance leads to model bias. Therefore, we propose curvature regularization to facilitate the model to learn curvature-balanced and flatter perceptual manifolds. Evaluations on multiple long-tailed and non-long-tailed datasets show the excellent performance and exciting generality of our approach, especially in achieving significant performance improvements based on current state-of-the-art techniques. Our work opens up a geometric analysis perspective on model bias and reminds researchers to pay attention to model bias on non-long-tailed and even sample-balanced datasets. The code and model will be made public.
The construction of machine learning models involves many bi-level multi-objective optimization problems (BL-MOPs), where upper level (UL) candidate solutions must be evaluated via training weights of a model in the lower level (LL). Due to the Pareto optimality of sub-problems and the complex dependency across UL solutions and LL weights, an UL solution is feasible if and only if the LL weight is Pareto optimal. It is computationally expensive to determine which LL Pareto weight in the LL Pareto weight set is the most appropriate for each UL solution. This paper proposes a bi-level multi-objective learning framework (BLMOL), coupling the above decision-making process with the optimization process of the UL-MOP by introducing LL preference $r$. Specifically, the UL variable and $r$ are simultaneously searched to minimize multiple UL objectives by evolutionary multi-objective algorithms. The LL weight with respect to $r$ is trained to minimize multiple LL objectives via gradient-based preference multi-objective algorithms. In addition, the preference surrogate model is constructed to replace the expensive evaluation process of the UL-MOP. We consider a novel case study on multi-task graph neural topology search. It aims to find a set of Pareto topologies and their Pareto weights, representing different trade-offs across tasks at UL and LL, respectively. The found graph neural network is employed to solve multiple tasks simultaneously, including graph classification, node classification, and link prediction. Experimental results demonstrate that BLMOL can outperform some state-of-the-art algorithms and generate well-representative UL solutions and LL weights.
Influence maximization is a key issue for mining the deep information of social networks, which aims to select a seed set from the network to maximize the number of influenced nodes. To evaluate the influence spread of a seed set efficiently, existing works have proposed some proxy models (transformations) with lower computational costs to replace the expensive Monte Carlo simulation process. These alternate transformations based on network prior knowledge induce different search behaviors with similar characteristics from various perspectives. For a specific case, it is difficult for users to determine a suitable transformation a priori. Keeping those in mind, we propose a multi-transformation evolutionary framework for influence maximization (MTEFIM) to exploit the potential similarities and unique advantages of alternate transformations and avoid users to determine the most suitable one manually. In MTEFIM, multiple transformations are optimized simultaneously as multiple tasks. Each transformation is assigned an evolutionary solver. Three major components of MTEFIM are conducted: 1) estimating the potential relationship across transformations based on the degree of overlap across individuals (seed sets) of different populations, 2) transferring individuals across populations adaptively according to the inter-transformation relationship, 3) selecting the final output seed set containing all the proxy model knowledge. The effectiveness of MTEFIM is validated on four real-world social networks. Experimental results show that MTEFIM can efficiently utilize the potentially transferable knowledge across multiple transformations to achieve highly competitive performance compared to several popular IM-specific methods. The implementation of MTEFIM can be accessed at https://github.com/xiaofangxd/MTEFIM.
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Vision-language navigation (VLN) is a challenging task due to its large searching space in the environment. To address this problem, previous works have proposed some methods of fine-tuning a large model that pretrained on large-scale datasets. However, the conventional fine-tuning methods require extra human-labeled navigation data and lack self-exploration capabilities in environments, which hinders their generalization of unseen scenes. To improve the ability of fast cross-domain adaptation, we propose Prompt-based Environmental Self-exploration (ProbES), which can self-explore the environments by sampling trajectories and automatically generates structured instructions via a large-scale cross-modal pretrained model (CLIP). Our method fully utilizes the knowledge learned from CLIP to build an in-domain dataset by self-exploration without human labeling. Unlike the conventional approach of fine-tuning, we introduce prompt-based learning to achieve fast adaptation for language embeddings, which substantially improves the learning efficiency by leveraging prior knowledge. By automatically synthesizing trajectory-instruction pairs in any environment without human supervision and efficient prompt-based learning, our model can adapt to diverse vision-language navigation tasks, including VLN and REVERIE. Both qualitative and quantitative results show that our ProbES significantly improves the generalization ability of the navigation model.
Small objects are difficult to detect because of their low resolution and small size. The existing small object detection methods mainly focus on data preprocessing or narrowing the differences between large and small objects. Inspired by human vision "attention" mechanism, we exploit two feature extraction methods to mine the most useful information of small objects. Both methods are based on multiresolution feature extraction. We initially design and explore the soft attention method, but we find that its convergence speed is slow. Then we present the second method, an attention-based feature interaction method, called a MultiResolution Attention Extractor (MRAE), showing significant improvement as a generic feature extractor in small object detection. After each building block in the vanilla feature extractor, we append a small network to generate attention weights followed by a weighted-sum operation to get the final attention maps. Our attention-based feature extractor is 2.0 times the AP of the "hard" attention counterpart (plain architecture) on the COCO small object detection benchmark, proving that MRAE can capture useful location and contextual information through adaptive learning.
Object detection is one of the most important and challenging branches of computer vision, which has been widely applied in peoples life, such as monitoring security, autonomous driving and so on, with the purpose of locating instances of semantic objects of a certain class. With the rapid development of deep learning networks for detection tasks, the performance of object detectors has been greatly improved. In order to understand the main development status of object detection pipeline, thoroughly and deeply, in this survey, we first analyze the methods of existing typical detection models and describe the benchmark datasets. Afterwards and primarily, we provide a comprehensive overview of a variety of object detection methods in a systematic manner, covering the one-stage and two-stage detectors. Moreover, we list the traditional and new applications. Some representative branches of object detection are analyzed as well. Finally, we discuss the architecture of exploiting these object detection methods to build an effective and efficient system and point out a set of development trends to better follow the state-of-the-art algorithms and further research.
Exploiting rich spatial and spectral features contributes to improve the classification accuracy of hyperspectral images (HSIs). In this paper, based on the mechanism of the population receptive field (pRF) in human visual cortex, we further utilize the spatial correlation of pixels in images and propose pixel directed acyclic graph recurrent neural network (Pixel DAG-RNN) to extract and apply spectral-spatial features for HSIs classification. In our model, an undirected cyclic graph (UCG) is used to represent the relevance connectivity of pixels in an image patch, and four DAGs are used to approximate the spatial relationship of UCGs. In order to avoid overfitting, weight sharing and dropout are adopted. The higher classification performance of our model on HSIs classification has been verified by experiments on three benchmark data sets.
Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) images are widely used in disaster detection and military reconnaissance and so on. However, their interpretation faces some challenges, e.g., deficiency of labeled data, inadequate utilization of data information and so on. In this paper, a complex-valued generative adversarial network (GAN) is proposed for the first time to address these issues. The complex number form of model complies with the physical mechanism of PolSAR data and in favor of utilizing and retaining amplitude and phase information of PolSAR data. GAN architecture and semi-supervised learning are combined to handle deficiency of labeled data. GAN expands training data and semi-supervised learning is used to train network with generated, labeled and unlabeled data. Experimental results on two benchmark data sets show that our model outperforms existing state-of-the-art models, especially for conditions with fewer labeled data.