While deep neural networks have excellent results in many fields, they are susceptible to interference from attacking samples resulting in erroneous judgments. Feature-level attacks are one of the effective attack types, which targets the learnt features in the hidden layers to improve its transferability across different models. Yet it is observed that the transferability has been largely impacted by the neuron importance estimation results. In this paper, a double adversarial neuron attribution attack method, termed `DANAA', is proposed to obtain more accurate feature importance estimation. In our method, the model outputs are attributed to the middle layer based on an adversarial non-linear path. The goal is to measure the weight of individual neurons and retain the features that are more important towards transferability. We have conducted extensive experiments on the benchmark datasets to demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance of our method. Our code is available at: https://github.com/Davidjinzb/DANAA
The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is one of the most important parts of a hospital, which admits critically ill patients and provides continuous monitoring and treatment. Various patient outcome prediction methods have been attempted to assist healthcare professionals in clinical decision-making. Existing methods focus on measuring the similarity between patients using deep neural networks to capture the hidden feature structures. However, the higher-order relationships are ignored, such as patient characteristics (e.g., diagnosis codes) and their causal effects on downstream clinical predictions. In this paper, we propose a novel Hypergraph Convolutional Network that allows the representation of non-pairwise relationships among diagnosis codes in a hypergraph to capture the hidden feature structures so that fine-grained patient similarity can be calculated for personalized mortality risk prediction. Evaluation using a publicly available eICU Collaborative Research Database indicates that our method achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art models on mortality risk prediction. Moreover, the results of several case studies demonstrated the effectiveness of constructing graph networks in providing good transparency and robustness in decision-making.
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is characterized by rapid, irregular heartbeats, and can lead to fatal complications such as heart failure. The disease is divided into two sub-types based on severity, which can be automatically classified through CT volumes for disease screening of severe cases. However, existing classification approaches rely on generic radiomic features that may not be optimal for the task, whilst deep learning methods tend to over-fit to the high-dimensional volume inputs. In this work, we propose a novel radiomics-informed deep-learning method, RIDL, that combines the advantages of deep learning and radiomic approaches to improve AF sub-type classification. Unlike existing hybrid techniques that mostly rely on na\"ive feature concatenation, we observe that radiomic feature selection methods can serve as an information prior, and propose supplementing low-level deep neural network (DNN) features with locally computed radiomic features. This reduces DNN over-fitting and allows local variations between radiomic features to be better captured. Furthermore, we ensure complementary information is learned by deep and radiomic features by designing a novel feature de-correlation loss. Combined, our method addresses the limitations of deep learning and radiomic approaches and outperforms state-of-the-art radiomic, deep learning, and hybrid approaches, achieving 86.9% AUC for the AF sub-type classification task. Code is available at https://github.com/xmed-lab/RIDL.
Foundation models, often pre-trained with large-scale data, have achieved paramount success in jump-starting various vision and language applications. Recent advances further enable adapting foundation models in downstream tasks efficiently using only a few training samples, e.g., in-context learning. Yet, the application of such learning paradigms in medical image analysis remains scarce due to the shortage of publicly accessible data and benchmarks. In this paper, we aim at approaches adapting the foundation models for medical image classification and present a novel dataset and benchmark for the evaluation, i.e., examining the overall performance of accommodating the large-scale foundation models downstream on a set of diverse real-world clinical tasks. We collect five sets of medical imaging data from multiple institutes targeting a variety of real-world clinical tasks (22,349 images in total), i.e., thoracic diseases screening in X-rays, pathological lesion tissue screening, lesion detection in endoscopy images, neonatal jaundice evaluation, and diabetic retinopathy grading. Results of multiple baseline methods are demonstrated using the proposed dataset from both accuracy and cost-effective perspectives.
This paper studies the distributed resilient output containment control of heterogeneous multiagent systems against composite attacks, including denial-of-services (DoS) attacks, false-data injection (FDI) attacks, camouflage attacks, and actuation attacks. Inspired by digital twins, a twin layer (TL) with higher security and privacy is used to decouple the above problem into two tasks: defense protocols against DoS attacks on TL and defense protocols against actuation attacks on cyber-physical layer (CPL). First, considering modeling errors of leader dynamics, we introduce distributed observers to reconstruct the leader dynamics for each follower on TL under DoS attacks. Second, distributed estimators are used to estimate follower states according to the reconstructed leader dynamics on the TL. Third, according to the reconstructed leader dynamics, we design decentralized solvers that calculate the output regulator equations on CPL. Fourth, decentralized adaptive attack-resilient control schemes that resist unbounded actuation attacks are provided on CPL. Furthermore, we apply the above control protocols to prove that the followers can achieve uniformly ultimately bounded (UUB) convergence, and the upper bound of the UUB convergence is determined explicitly. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control protocols.
Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) is becoming increasingly popular in implementing traffic signal control (TSC). However, most existing DRL methods employ fixed control strategies, making traffic signal phase duration less flexible. Additionally, the trend of using more complex DRL models makes real-life deployment more challenging. To address these two challenges, we firstly propose a two-stage DRL framework, named DynamicLight, which uses Max Queue-Length to select the proper phase and employs a deep Q-learning network to determine the duration of the corresponding phase. Based on the design of DynamicLight, we also introduce two variants: (1) DynamicLight-Lite, which addresses the first challenge by using only 19 parameters to achieve dynamic phase duration settings; and (2) DynamicLight-Cycle, which tackles the second challenge by actuating a set of phases in a fixed cyclical order to implement flexible phase duration in the respective cyclical phase structure. Numerical experiments are conducted using both real-world and synthetic datasets, covering four most commonly adopted traffic signal intersections in real life. Experimental results show that: (1) DynamicLight can learn satisfactorily on determining the phase duration and achieve a new state-of-the-art, with improvement up to 6% compared to the baselines in terms of adjusted average travel time; (2) DynamicLight-Lite matches or outperforms most baseline methods with only 19 parameters; and (3) DynamicLight-Cycle demonstrates high performance for current TSC systems without remarkable modification in an actual deployment. Our code is released at Github.
Recently, finding fundamental properties for traffic state representation is more critical than complex algorithms for traffic signal control (TSC).In this paper, we (1) present a novel, flexible and straightforward method advanced max pressure (Advanced-MP), taking both running and queueing vehicles into consideration to decide whether to change current phase; (2) novelty design the traffic movement representation with the efficient pressure and effective running vehicles from Advanced-MP, namely advanced traffic state (ATS); (3) develop an RL-based algorithm template Advanced-XLight, by combining ATS with current RL approaches and generate two RL algorithms, "Advanced-MPLight" and "Advanced-CoLight". Comprehensive experiments on multiple real-world datasets show that: (1) the Advanced-MP outperforms baseline methods, which is efficient and reliable for deployment; (2) Advanced-MPLight and Advanced-CoLight could achieve new state-of-the-art. Our code is released on Github.
Since conventional approaches could not adapt to dynamic traffic conditions, reinforcement learning (RL) has attracted more attention to help solve the traffic signal control (TSC) problem. However, existing RL-based methods are rarely deployed considering that they are neither cost-effective in terms of computing resources nor more robust than traditional approaches, which raises a critical research question: how to construct an adaptive controller for TSC with less training and reduced complexity based on RL-based approach? To address this question, in this paper, we (1) innovatively specify the traffic movement representation as a simple but efficient pressure of vehicle queues in a traffic network, namely efficient pressure (EP); (2) build a traffic signal settings protocol, including phase duration, signal phase number and EP for TSC; (3) design a TSC approach based on the traditional max pressure (MP) approach, namely efficient max pressure (Efficient-MP) using the EP to capture the traffic state; and (4) develop a general RL-based TSC algorithm template: efficient Xlight (Efficient-XLight) under EP. Through comprehensive experiments on multiple real-world datasets in our traffic signal settings' protocol for TSC, we demonstrate that efficient pressure is complementary to traditional and RL-based modeling to design better TSC methods. Our code is released on Github.
Neural networks play an important role in crop-weed classification have high accuracy more than 95%. Manually choosing models and fine-tuning are laborious, yet it is indispensable in most traditional practices and researches. Moreover, classic training metric are not thoroughly compatible with farming tasks, that a model still have a noticeable chance of miss classifying crop to weed while it reach higher accuracy even more than 99%. In this paper we demonstrate a methodology of weed-crop classification based on autonomous models choosing and ensemble that could make models choosing and tunning automatically, and improve the prediction with high accuracy(>99% for both data set) in specific class with low risk in incorrect predicting.