Creativity serves as a cornerstone for societal progress and innovation. With the rise of advanced generative AI models capable of tasks once reserved for human creativity, the study of AI's creative potential becomes imperative for its responsible development and application. In this paper, we provide a theoretical answer to the question of whether AI can be creative. We prove in theory that AI can be as creative as humans under the condition that AI can fit the existing data generated by human creators. Therefore, the debate on AI's creativity is reduced into the question of its ability of fitting a massive amount of data. To arrive at this conclusion, this paper first addresses the complexities in defining creativity by introducing a new concept called Relative Creativity. Instead of trying to define creativity universally, we shift the focus to whether AI can match the creative abilities of a hypothetical human. This perspective draws inspiration from the Turing Test, expanding upon it to address the challenges and subjectivities inherent in assessing creativity. This methodological shift leads to a statistically quantifiable assessment of AI's creativity, which we term Statistical Creativity. This concept allows for comparisons of AI's creative abilities with those of specific human groups, and facilitates the theoretical findings of AI's creative potential. Building on this foundation, we discuss the application of statistical creativity in prompt-conditioned autoregressive models, providing a practical means for evaluating creative abilities of contemporary AI models, such as Large Language Models (LLMs). In addition to defining and analyzing creativity, we introduce an actionable training guideline, effectively bridging the gap between theoretical quantification of creativity and practical model training.
* The paper examines AI's creativity, introducing Relative and
Statistical Creativity for theoretical and practical analysis, along with
practical training guidelines. Project Page: ai-relative-creativity.github.io
The commercialization of diffusion models, renowned for their ability to generate high-quality images that are often indistinguishable from real ones, brings forth potential copyright concerns. Although attempts have been made to impede unauthorized access to copyrighted material during training and to subsequently prevent DMs from generating copyrighted images, the effectiveness of these solutions remains unverified. This study explores the vulnerabilities associated with copyright protection in DMs by introducing a backdoor data poisoning attack (SilentBadDiffusion) against text-to-image diffusion models. Our attack method operates without requiring access to or control over the diffusion model's training or fine-tuning processes; it merely involves the insertion of poisoning data into the clean training dataset. This data, comprising poisoning images equipped with prompts, is generated by leveraging the powerful capabilities of multimodal large language models and text-guided image inpainting techniques. Our experimental results and analysis confirm the method's effectiveness. By integrating a minor portion of non-copyright-infringing stealthy poisoning data into the clean dataset-rendering it free from suspicion-we can prompt the finetuned diffusion models to produce copyrighted content when activated by specific trigger prompts. These findings underline potential pitfalls in the prevailing copyright protection strategies and underscore the necessity for increased scrutiny and preventative measures against the misuse of DMs.
* This study reveals that by subtly inserting non-copyright-infringing
poisoning data into a diffusion model's training dataset, it's possible to
trigger the model to generate copyrighted content, highlighting
vulnerabilities in current copyright protection strategies
Most state-of-the-art methods for medical image segmentation adopt the encoder-decoder architecture. However, this U-shaped framework still has limitations in capturing the non-local multi-scale information with a simple skip connection. To solve the problem, we firstly explore the potential weakness of skip connections in U-Net on multiple segmentation tasks, and find that i) not all skip connections are useful, each skip connection has different contribution; ii) the optimal combinations of skip connections are different, relying on the specific datasets. Based on our findings, we propose a new segmentation framework, named UDTransNet, to solve three semantic gaps in U-Net. Specifically, we propose a Dual Attention Transformer (DAT) module for capturing the channel- and spatial-wise relationships to better fuse the encoder features, and a Decoder-guided Recalibration Attention (DRA) module for effectively connecting the DAT tokens and the decoder features to eliminate the inconsistency. Hence, both modules establish a learnable connection to solve the semantic gaps between the encoder and the decoder, which leads to a high-performance segmentation model for medical images. Comprehensive experimental results indicate that our UDTransNet produces higher evaluation scores and finer segmentation results with relatively fewer parameters over the state-of-the-art segmentation methods on different public datasets. Code: https://github.com/McGregorWwww/UDTransNet.
Dataset distillation reduces the storage and computational consumption of training a network by generating a small surrogate dataset that encapsulates rich information of the original large-scale one. However, previous distillation methods heavily rely on the sample-wise iterative optimization scheme. As the images-per-class (IPC) setting or image resolution grows larger, the necessary computation will demand overwhelming time and resources. In this work, we intend to incorporate generative diffusion techniques for computing the surrogate dataset. Observing that key factors for constructing an effective surrogate dataset are representativeness and diversity, we design additional minimax criteria in the generative training to enhance these facets for the generated images of diffusion models. We present a theoretical model of the process as hierarchical diffusion control demonstrating the flexibility of the diffusion process to target these criteria without jeopardizing the faithfulness of the sample to the desired distribution. The proposed method achieves state-of-the-art validation performance while demanding much less computational resources. Under the 100-IPC setting on ImageWoof, our method requires less than one-twentieth the distillation time of previous methods, yet yields even better performance. Source code available in https://github.com/vimar-gu/MinimaxDiffusion.
Volume-wise labeling in 3D medical images is a time-consuming task that requires expertise. As a result, there is growing interest in using semi-supervised learning (SSL) techniques to train models with limited labeled data. However, the challenges and practical applications extend beyond SSL to settings such as unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) and semi-supervised domain generalization (SemiDG). This work aims to develop a generic SSL framework that can handle all three settings. We identify two main obstacles to achieving this goal in the existing SSL framework: 1) the weakness of capturing distribution-invariant features; and 2) the tendency for unlabeled data to be overwhelmed by labeled data, leading to over-fitting to the labeled data during training. To address these issues, we propose an Aggregating & Decoupling framework. The aggregating part consists of a Diffusion encoder that constructs a common knowledge set by extracting distribution-invariant features from aggregated information from multiple distributions/domains. The decoupling part consists of three decoders that decouple the training process with labeled and unlabeled data, thus avoiding over-fitting to labeled data, specific domains and classes. We evaluate our proposed framework on four benchmark datasets for SSL, Class-imbalanced SSL, UDA and SemiDG. The results showcase notable improvements compared to state-of-the-art methods across all four settings, indicating the potential of our framework to tackle more challenging SSL scenarios. Code and models are available at: https://github.com/xmed-lab/GenericSSL.
Embedding-based retrieval methods construct vector indices to search for document representations that are most similar to the query representations. They are widely used in document retrieval due to low latency and decent recall performance. Recent research indicates that deep retrieval solutions offer better model quality, but are hindered by unacceptable serving latency and the inability to support document updates. In this paper, we aim to enhance the vector index with end-to-end deep generative models, leveraging the differentiable advantages of deep retrieval models while maintaining desirable serving efficiency. We propose Model-enhanced Vector Index (MEVI), a differentiable model-enhanced index empowered by a twin-tower representation model. MEVI leverages a Residual Quantization (RQ) codebook to bridge the sequence-to-sequence deep retrieval and embedding-based models. To substantially reduce the inference time, instead of decoding the unique document ids in long sequential steps, we first generate some semantic virtual cluster ids of candidate documents in a small number of steps, and then leverage the well-adapted embedding vectors to further perform a fine-grained search for the relevant documents in the candidate virtual clusters. We empirically show that our model achieves better performance on the commonly used academic benchmarks MSMARCO Passage and Natural Questions, with comparable serving latency to dense retrieval solutions.
Heatmap-based methods have become the mainstream method for pose estimation due to their superior performance. However, heatmap-based approaches suffer from significant quantization errors with downscale heatmaps, which result in limited performance and the detrimental effects of intermediate supervision. Previous heatmap-based methods relied heavily on additional post-processing to mitigate quantization errors. Some heatmap-based approaches improve the resolution of feature maps by using multiple costly upsampling layers to improve localization precision. To solve the above issues, we creatively view the backbone network as a degradation process and thus reformulate the heatmap prediction as a Super-Resolution (SR) task. We first propose the SR head, which predicts heatmaps with a spatial resolution higher than the input feature maps (or even consistent with the input image) by super-resolution, to effectively reduce the quantization error and the dependence on further post-processing. Besides, we propose SRPose to gradually recover the HR heatmaps from LR heatmaps and degraded features in a coarse-to-fine manner. To reduce the training difficulty of HR heatmaps, SRPose applies SR heads to supervise the intermediate features in each stage. In addition, the SR head is a lightweight and generic head that applies to top-down and bottom-up methods. Extensive experiments on the COCO, MPII, and CrowdPose datasets show that SRPose outperforms the corresponding heatmap-based approaches. The code and models are available at https://github.com/haonanwang0522/SRPose.
The volume-wise labeling of 3D medical images is expertise-demanded and time-consuming; hence semi-supervised learning (SSL) is highly desirable for training with limited labeled data. Imbalanced class distribution is a severe problem that bottlenecks the real-world application of these methods but was not addressed much. Aiming to solve this issue, we present a novel Dual-debiased Heterogeneous Co-training (DHC) framework for semi-supervised 3D medical image segmentation. Specifically, we propose two loss weighting strategies, namely Distribution-aware Debiased Weighting (DistDW) and Difficulty-aware Debiased Weighting (DiffDW), which leverage the pseudo labels dynamically to guide the model to solve data and learning biases. The framework improves significantly by co-training these two diverse and accurate sub-models. We also introduce more representative benchmarks for class-imbalanced semi-supervised medical image segmentation, which can fully demonstrate the efficacy of the class-imbalance designs. Experiments show that our proposed framework brings significant improvements by using pseudo labels for debiasing and alleviating the class imbalance problem. More importantly, our method outperforms the state-of-the-art SSL methods, demonstrating the potential of our framework for the more challenging SSL setting. Code and models are available at: https://github.com/xmed-lab/DHC.
In generative modeling, numerous successful approaches leverage a low-dimensional latent space, e.g., Stable Diffusion models the latent space induced by an encoder and generates images through a paired decoder. Although the selection of the latent space is empirically pivotal, determining the optimal choice and the process of identifying it remain unclear. In this study, we aim to shed light on this under-explored topic by rethinking the latent space from the perspective of model complexity. Our investigation starts with the classic generative adversarial networks (GANs). Inspired by the GAN training objective, we propose a novel "distance" between the latent and data distributions, whose minimization coincides with that of the generator complexity. The minimizer of this distance is characterized as the optimal data-dependent latent that most effectively capitalizes on the generator's capacity. Then, we consider parameterizing such a latent distribution by an encoder network and propose a two-stage training strategy called Decoupled Autoencoder (DAE), where the encoder is only updated in the first stage with an auxiliary decoder and then frozen in the second stage while the actual decoder is being trained. DAE can improve the latent distribution and as a result, improve the generative performance. Our theoretical analyses are corroborated by comprehensive experiments on various models such as VQGAN and Diffusion Transformer, where our modifications yield significant improvements in sample quality with decreased model complexity.
* TL;DR: This work characterizes the optimal latent distribution for
generative models from the perspective of minimizing model complexity and
proposes a two-stage training scheme that achieves practical improvements on
GAN, VQGAN and DiT