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Jun Li

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Adversarial Batch Inverse Reinforcement Learning: Learn to Reward from Imperfect Demonstration for Interactive Recommendation

Oct 30, 2023
Jialin Liu, Xinyan Su, Zeyu He, Xiangyu Zhao, Jun Li

Rewards serve as a measure of user satisfaction and act as a limiting factor in interactive recommender systems. In this research, we focus on the problem of learning to reward (LTR), which is fundamental to reinforcement learning. Previous approaches either introduce additional procedures for learning to reward, thereby increasing the complexity of optimization, or assume that user-agent interactions provide perfect demonstrations, which is not feasible in practice. Ideally, we aim to employ a unified approach that optimizes both the reward and policy using compositional demonstrations. However, this requirement presents a challenge since rewards inherently quantify user feedback on-policy, while recommender agents approximate off-policy future cumulative valuation. To tackle this challenge, we propose a novel batch inverse reinforcement learning paradigm that achieves the desired properties. Our method utilizes discounted stationary distribution correction to combine LTR and recommender agent evaluation. To fulfill the compositional requirement, we incorporate the concept of pessimism through conservation. Specifically, we modify the vanilla correction using Bellman transformation and enforce KL regularization to constrain consecutive policy updates. We use two real-world datasets which represent two compositional coverage to conduct empirical studies, the results also show that the proposed method relatively improves both effectiveness (2.3\%) and efficiency (11.53\%)

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A General Neural Causal Model for Interactive Recommendation

Oct 30, 2023
Jialin Liu, Xinyan Su, Peng Zhou, Xiangyu Zhao, Jun Li

Survivor bias in observational data leads the optimization of recommender systems towards local optima. Currently most solutions re-mines existing human-system collaboration patterns to maximize longer-term satisfaction by reinforcement learning. However, from the causal perspective, mitigating survivor effects requires answering a counterfactual problem, which is generally unidentifiable and inestimable. In this work, we propose a neural causal model to achieve counterfactual inference. Specifically, we first build a learnable structural causal model based on its available graphical representations which qualitatively characterizes the preference transitions. Mitigation of the survivor bias is achieved though counterfactual consistency. To identify the consistency, we use the Gumbel-max function as structural constrains. To estimate the consistency, we apply reinforcement optimizations, and use Gumbel-Softmax as a trade-off to get a differentiable function. Both theoretical and empirical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of our solution.

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Dual Radar: A Multi-modal Dataset with Dual 4D Radar for Autonomous Driving

Oct 23, 2023
Xinyu Zhang, Li Wang, Jian Chen, Cheng Fang, Lei Yang, Ziying Song, Guangqi Yang, Yichen Wang, Xiaofei Zhang, Qingshan Yang, Jun Li

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Radar has stronger adaptability in adverse scenarios for autonomous driving environmental perception compared to widely adopted cameras and LiDARs. Compared with commonly used 3D radars, the latest 4D radars have precise vertical resolution and higher point cloud density, making it a highly promising sensor for autonomous driving in complex environmental perception. However, due to the much higher noise than LiDAR, manufacturers choose different filtering strategies, resulting in an inverse ratio between noise level and point cloud density. There is still a lack of comparative analysis on which method is beneficial for deep learning-based perception algorithms in autonomous driving. One of the main reasons is that current datasets only adopt one type of 4D radar, making it difficult to compare different 4D radars in the same scene. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce a novel large-scale multi-modal dataset featuring, for the first time, two types of 4D radars captured simultaneously. This dataset enables further research into effective 4D radar perception algorithms.Our dataset consists of 151 consecutive series, most of which last 20 seconds and contain 10,007 meticulously synchronized and annotated frames. Moreover, our dataset captures a variety of challenging driving scenarios, including many road conditions, weather conditions, nighttime and daytime with different lighting intensities and periods. Our dataset annotates consecutive frames, which can be applied to 3D object detection and tracking, and also supports the study of multi-modal tasks. We experimentally validate our dataset, providing valuable results for studying different types of 4D radars. This dataset is released on

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Fuzzy-NMS: Improving 3D Object Detection with Fuzzy Classification in NMS

Oct 21, 2023
Li Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Fachuan Zhao, Chuze Wu, Yichen Wang, Ziying Song, Lei Yang, Jun Li, Huaping Liu

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Non-maximum suppression (NMS) is an essential post-processing module used in many 3D object detection frameworks to remove overlapping candidate bounding boxes. However, an overreliance on classification scores and difficulties in determining appropriate thresholds can affect the resulting accuracy directly. To address these issues, we introduce fuzzy learning into NMS and propose a novel generalized Fuzzy-NMS module to achieve finer candidate bounding box filtering. The proposed Fuzzy-NMS module combines the volume and clustering density of candidate bounding boxes, refining them with a fuzzy classification method and optimizing the appropriate suppression thresholds to reduce uncertainty in the NMS process. Adequate validation experiments are conducted using the mainstream KITTI and large-scale Waymo 3D object detection benchmarks. The results of these tests demonstrate the proposed Fuzzy-NMS module can improve the accuracy of numerous recently NMS-based detectors significantly, including PointPillars, PV-RCNN, and IA-SSD, etc. This effect is particularly evident for small objects such as pedestrians and bicycles. As a plug-and-play module, Fuzzy-NMS does not need to be retrained and produces no obvious increases in inference time.

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Pre-Training on Large-Scale Generated Docking Conformations with HelixDock to Unlock the Potential of Protein-ligand Structure Prediction Models

Oct 21, 2023
Lihang Liu, Donglong He, Xianbin Ye, Shanzhuo Zhang, Xiaonan Zhang, Jingbo Zhou, Jun Li, Hua Chai, Fan Wang, Jingzhou He, Liang Zheng, Yonghui Li, Xiaomin Fang

Molecular docking, a pivotal computational tool for drug discovery, predicts the binding interactions between small molecules (ligands) and target proteins (receptors). Conventional physics-based docking tools, though widely used, face limitations in precision due to restricted conformational sampling and imprecise scoring functions. Recent endeavors have employed deep learning techniques to enhance docking accuracy, but their generalization remains a concern due to limited training data. Leveraging the success of extensive and diverse data in other domains, we introduce HelixDock, a novel approach for site-specific molecular docking. Hundreds of millions of binding poses are generated by traditional docking tools, encompassing diverse protein targets and small molecules. Our deep learning-based docking model, a SE(3)-equivariant network, is pre-trained with this large-scale dataset and then fine-tuned with a small number of precise receptor-ligand complex structures. Comparative analyses against physics-based and deep learning-based baseline methods highlight HelixDock's superiority, especially on challenging test sets. Our study elucidates the scaling laws of the pre-trained molecular docking models, showcasing consistent improvements with increased model parameters and pre-train data quantities. Harnessing the power of extensive and diverse generated data holds promise for advancing AI-driven drug discovery.

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FMRT: Learning Accurate Feature Matching with Reconciliatory Transformer

Oct 20, 2023
Xinyu Zhang, Li Wang, Zhiqiang Jiang, Kun Dai, Tao Xie, Lei Yang, Wenhao Yu, Yang Shen, Jun Li

Local Feature Matching, an essential component of several computer vision tasks (e.g., structure from motion and visual localization), has been effectively settled by Transformer-based methods. However, these methods only integrate long-range context information among keypoints with a fixed receptive field, which constrains the network from reconciling the importance of features with different receptive fields to realize complete image perception, hence limiting the matching accuracy. In addition, these methods utilize a conventional handcrafted encoding approach to integrate the positional information of keypoints into the visual descriptors, which limits the capability of the network to extract reliable positional encoding message. In this study, we propose Feature Matching with Reconciliatory Transformer (FMRT), a novel Transformer-based detector-free method that reconciles different features with multiple receptive fields adaptively and utilizes parallel networks to realize reliable positional encoding. Specifically, FMRT proposes a dedicated Reconciliatory Transformer (RecFormer) that consists of a Global Perception Attention Layer (GPAL) to extract visual descriptors with different receptive fields and integrate global context information under various scales, Perception Weight Layer (PWL) to measure the importance of various receptive fields adaptively, and Local Perception Feed-forward Network (LPFFN) to extract deep aggregated multi-scale local feature representation. Extensive experiments demonstrate that FMRT yields extraordinary performance on multiple benchmarks, including pose estimation, visual localization, homography estimation, and image matching.

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Affine Frequency Division Multiplexing With Index Modulation

Oct 19, 2023
Yiwei Tao, Miaowen Wen, Yao Ge, Jun Li

Affine frequency division multiplexing (AFDM) is a new multicarrier technique based on chirp signals tailored for high-mobility communications, which can achieve full diversity. In this paper, we propose an index modulation (IM) scheme based on the framework of AFDM systems, named AFDM-IM. In the proposed AFDM-IM scheme, the information bits are carried by the activation state of the subsymbols in discrete affine Fourier (DAF) domain in addition to the conventional constellation symbols. To efficiently perform IM, we divide the subsymbols in DAF domain into several groups and consider both the localized and distributed strategies. An asymptotically tight upper bound on the average bit error rate (BER) of the maximum-likelihood detection in the existence of channel estimation errors is derived in closed-form. Computer simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed AFDM-IM scheme, whose results corroborate its superiority over the benchmark schemes in the linear time-varying channels. We also evaluate the BER performance of the index and modulated bits for the AFDM-IM scheme with and without satisfying the full diversity condition of AFDM. The results show that the index bits have a stronger diversity protection than the modulated bits even when the full diversity condition of AFDM is not satisfied.

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Federated Meta-Learning for Few-Shot Fault Diagnosis with Representation Encoding

Oct 13, 2023
Jixuan Cui, Jun Li, Zhen Mei, Kang Wei, Sha Wei, Ming Ding, Wen Chen, Song Guo

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Deep learning-based fault diagnosis (FD) approaches require a large amount of training data, which are difficult to obtain since they are located across different entities. Federated learning (FL) enables multiple clients to collaboratively train a shared model with data privacy guaranteed. However, the domain discrepancy and data scarcity problems among clients deteriorate the performance of the global FL model. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel framework called representation encoding-based federated meta-learning (REFML) for few-shot FD. First, a novel training strategy based on representation encoding and meta-learning is developed. It harnesses the inherent heterogeneity among training clients, effectively transforming it into an advantage for out-of-distribution generalization on unseen working conditions or equipment types. Additionally, an adaptive interpolation method that calculates the optimal combination of local and global models as the initialization of local training is proposed. This helps to further utilize local information to mitigate the negative effects of domain discrepancy. As a result, high diagnostic accuracy can be achieved on unseen working conditions or equipment types with limited training data. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, such as FedProx, the proposed REFML framework achieves an increase in accuracy by 2.17%-6.50% when tested on unseen working conditions of the same equipment type and 13.44%-18.33% when tested on totally unseen equipment types, respectively.

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Revisiting Multi-modal 3D Semantic Segmentation in Real-world Autonomous Driving

Oct 13, 2023
Feng Jiang, Chaoping Tu, Gang Zhang, Jun Li, Hanqing Huang, Junyu Lin, Di Feng, Jian Pu

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LiDAR and camera are two critical sensors for multi-modal 3D semantic segmentation and are supposed to be fused efficiently and robustly to promise safety in various real-world scenarios. However, existing multi-modal methods face two key challenges: 1) difficulty with efficient deployment and real-time execution; and 2) drastic performance degradation under weak calibration between LiDAR and cameras. To address these challenges, we propose CPGNet-LCF, a new multi-modal fusion framework extending the LiDAR-only CPGNet. CPGNet-LCF solves the first challenge by inheriting the easy deployment and real-time capabilities of CPGNet. For the second challenge, we introduce a novel weak calibration knowledge distillation strategy during training to improve the robustness against the weak calibration. CPGNet-LCF achieves state-of-the-art performance on the nuScenes and SemanticKITTI benchmarks. Remarkably, it can be easily deployed to run in 20ms per frame on a single Tesla V100 GPU using TensorRT TF16 mode. Furthermore, we benchmark performance over four weak calibration levels, demonstrating the robustness of our proposed approach.

* 7 pages, 3 figures 
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Dynamic Appearance Particle Neural Radiance Field

Oct 11, 2023
Ancheng Lin, Jun Li

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Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) have shown great potential in modelling 3D scenes. Dynamic NeRFs extend this model by capturing time-varying elements, typically using deformation fields. The existing dynamic NeRFs employ a similar Eulerian representation for both light radiance and deformation fields. This leads to a close coupling of appearance and motion and lacks a physical interpretation. In this work, we propose Dynamic Appearance Particle Neural Radiance Field (DAP-NeRF), which introduces particle-based representation to model the motions of visual elements in a dynamic 3D scene. DAP-NeRF consists of superposition of a static field and a dynamic field. The dynamic field is quantised as a collection of {\em appearance particles}, which carries the visual information of a small dynamic element in the scene and is equipped with a motion model. All components, including the static field, the visual features and motion models of the particles, are learned from monocular videos without any prior geometric knowledge of the scene. We develop an efficient computational framework for the particle-based model. We also construct a new dataset to evaluate motion modelling. Experimental results show that DAP-NeRF is an effective technique to capture not only the appearance but also the physically meaningful motions in a 3D dynamic scene.

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