End-to-end speech translation (ST) for conversation recordings involves several under-explored challenges such as speaker diarization (SD) without accurate word time stamps and handling of overlapping speech in a streaming fashion. In this work, we propose DiariST, the first streaming ST and SD solution. It is built upon a neural transducer-based streaming ST system and integrates token-level serialized output training and t-vector, which were originally developed for multi-talker speech recognition. Due to the absence of evaluation benchmarks in this area, we develop a new evaluation dataset, DiariST-AliMeeting, by translating the reference Chinese transcriptions of the AliMeeting corpus into English. We also propose new metrics, called speaker-agnostic BLEU and speaker-attributed BLEU, to measure the ST quality while taking SD accuracy into account. Our system achieves a strong ST and SD capability compared to offline systems based on Whisper, while performing streaming inference for overlapping speech. To facilitate the research in this new direction, we release the evaluation data, the offline baseline systems, and the evaluation code.
Recent advancements in generative speech models based on audio-text prompts have enabled remarkable innovations like high-quality zero-shot text-to-speech. However, existing models still face limitations in handling diverse audio-text speech generation tasks involving transforming input speech and processing audio captured in adverse acoustic conditions. This paper introduces SpeechX, a versatile speech generation model capable of zero-shot TTS and various speech transformation tasks, dealing with both clean and noisy signals. SpeechX combines neural codec language modeling with multi-task learning using task-dependent prompting, enabling unified and extensible modeling and providing a consistent way for leveraging textual input in speech enhancement and transformation tasks. Experimental results show SpeechX's efficacy in various tasks, including zero-shot TTS, noise suppression, target speaker extraction, speech removal, and speech editing with or without background noise, achieving comparable or superior performance to specialized models across tasks. See https://aka.ms/speechx for demo samples.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have found widespread applications in interpreting remote sensing (RS) imagery. However, it has been demonstrated in previous works that DNNs are vulnerable to different types of noises, particularly adversarial noises. Surprisingly, there has been a lack of comprehensive studies on the robustness of RS tasks, prompting us to undertake a thorough survey and benchmark on the robustness of image classification and object detection in RS. To our best knowledge, this study represents the first comprehensive examination of both natural robustness and adversarial robustness in RS tasks. Specifically, we have curated and made publicly available datasets that contain natural and adversarial noises. These datasets serve as valuable resources for evaluating the robustness of DNNs-based models. To provide a comprehensive assessment of model robustness, we conducted meticulous experiments with numerous different classifiers and detectors, encompassing a wide range of mainstream methods. Through rigorous evaluation, we have uncovered insightful and intriguing findings, which shed light on the relationship between adversarial noise crafting and model training, yielding a deeper understanding of the susceptibility and limitations of various models, and providing guidance for the development of more resilient and robust models
Workload prediction in multi-tenant edge cloud platforms (MT-ECP) is vital for efficient application deployment and resource provisioning. However, the heterogeneous application patterns, variable infrastructure performance, and frequent deployments in MT-ECP pose significant challenges for accurate and efficient workload prediction. Clustering-based methods for dynamic MT-ECP modeling often incur excessive costs due to the need to maintain numerous data clusters and models, which leads to excessive costs. Existing end-to-end time series prediction methods are challenging to provide consistent prediction performance in dynamic MT-ECP. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end framework with global pooling and static content awareness, DynEformer, to provide a unified workload prediction scheme for dynamic MT-ECP. Meticulously designed global pooling and information merging mechanisms can effectively identify and utilize global application patterns to drive local workload predictions. The integration of static content-aware mechanisms enhances model robustness in real-world scenarios. Through experiments on five real-world datasets, DynEformer achieved state-of-the-art in the dynamic scene of MT-ECP and provided a unified end-to-end prediction scheme for MT-ECP.
In this paper, we advocate CPN-FedSL, a novel and flexible Federated Split Learning (FedSL) framework over Computing Power Network (CPN). We build a dedicated model to capture the basic settings and learning characteristics (e.g., training flow, latency and convergence). Based on this model, we introduce Resource Usage Effectiveness (RUE), a novel performance metric integrating training utility with system cost, and formulate a multivariate scheduling problem that maxi?mizes RUE by comprehensively taking client admission, model partition, server selection, routing and bandwidth allocation into account (i.e., mixed-integer fractional programming). We design Refinery, an efficient approach that first linearizes the fractional objective and non-convex constraints, and then solves the transformed problem via a greedy based rounding algorithm in multiple iterations. Extensive evaluations corroborate that CPN-FedSL is superior to the standard and state-of-the-art learning frameworks (e.g., FedAvg and SplitFed), and besides Refinery is lightweight and significantly outperforms its variants and de facto heuristic methods under a variety of settings.
Accurately detecting student behavior in classroom videos can aid in analyzing their classroom performance and improving teaching effectiveness. However, the current accuracy rate in behavior detection is low. To address this challenge, we propose the Student Classroom Behavior Detection system based on based on YOLOv7-BRA (YOLOv7 with Bi-level Routing Attention ). We identified eight different behavior patterns, including standing, sitting, speaking, listening, walking, raising hands, reading, and writing. We constructed a dataset, which contained 11,248 labels and 4,001 images, with an emphasis on the common behavior of raising hands in a classroom setting (Student Classroom Behavior dataset, SCB-Dataset). To improve detection accuracy, we added the biformer attention module to the YOLOv7 network. Finally, we fused the results from YOLOv7 CrowdHuman, SlowFast, and DeepSort models to obtain student classroom behavior data. We conducted experiments on the SCB-Dataset, and YOLOv7-BRA achieved an mAP@0.5 of 87.1%, resulting in a 2.2% improvement over previous results. Our SCB-dataset can be downloaded from: https://github.com/Whiffe/SCB-datase
Most recently, the pathology diagnosis of cancer is shifting to integrating molecular makers with histology features. It is a urgent need for digital pathology methods to effectively integrate molecular markers with histology, which could lead to more accurate diagnosis in the real world scenarios. This paper presents a first attempt to jointly predict molecular markers and histology features and model their interactions for classifying diffuse glioma bases on whole slide images. Specifically, we propose a hierarchical multi-task multi-instance learning framework to jointly predict histology and molecular markers. Moreover, we propose a co-occurrence probability-based label correction graph network to model the co-occurrence of molecular markers. Lastly, we design an inter-omic interaction strategy with the dynamical confidence constraint loss to model the interactions of histology and molecular markers. Our experiments show that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in classifying diffuse glioma,as well as related histology and molecular markers on a multi-institutional dataset.
Patch-based physical attacks have increasingly aroused concerns. However, most existing methods focus on obscuring targets captured on the ground, and some of these methods are simply extended to deceive aerial detectors. They smear the targeted objects in the physical world with the elaborated adversarial patches, which can only slightly sway the aerial detectors' prediction and with weak attack transferability. To address the above issues, we propose to perform Contextual Background Attack (CBA), a novel physical attack framework against aerial detection, which can achieve strong attack efficacy and transferability in the physical world even without smudging the interested objects at all. Specifically, the targets of interest, i.e. the aircraft in aerial images, are adopted to mask adversarial patches. The pixels outside the mask area are optimized to make the generated adversarial patches closely cover the critical contextual background area for detection, which contributes to gifting adversarial patches with more robust and transferable attack potency in the real world. To further strengthen the attack performance, the adversarial patches are forced to be outside targets during training, by which the detected objects of interest, both on and outside patches, benefit the accumulation of attack efficacy. Consequently, the sophisticatedly designed patches are gifted with solid fooling efficacy against objects both on and outside the adversarial patches simultaneously. Extensive proportionally scaled experiments are performed in physical scenarios, demonstrating the superiority and potential of the proposed framework for physical attacks. We expect that the proposed physical attack method will serve as a benchmark for assessing the adversarial robustness of diverse aerial detectors and defense methods.
Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have been extensively utilized in aerial detection. However, DNNs' sensitivity and vulnerability to maliciously elaborated adversarial examples have progressively garnered attention. Recently, physical attacks have gradually become a hot issue due to they are more practical in the real world, which poses great threats to some security-critical applications. In this paper, we take the first attempt to perform physical attacks in contextual form against aerial detection in the physical world. We propose an innovative contextual attack method against aerial detection in real scenarios, which achieves powerful attack performance and transfers well between various aerial object detectors without smearing or blocking the interested objects to hide. Based on the findings that the targets' contextual information plays an important role in aerial detection by observing the detectors' attention maps, we propose to make full use of the contextual area of the interested targets to elaborate contextual perturbations for the uncovered attacks in real scenarios. Extensive proportionally scaled experiments are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed contextual attack method, which demonstrates the proposed method's superiority in both attack efficacy and physical practicality.