Unfortunately, the official English (sub)task results reported in the NTCIR-14 WWW-2, NTCIR-15 WWW-3, and NTCIR-16 WWW-4 overview papers are incorrect due to noise in the official qrels files; this paper reports results based on the corrected qrels files. The noise is due to a fatal bug in the backend of our relevance assessment interface. More specifically, at WWW-2, WWW-3, and WWW-4, two versions of pool files were created for each English topic: a PRI ("prioritised") file, which uses the NTCIRPOOL script to prioritise likely relevant documents, and a RND ("randomised") file, which randomises the pooled documents. This was done for the purpose of studying the effect of document ordering for relevance assessors. However, the programmer who wrote the interface backend assumed that a combination of a topic ID and a document rank in the pool file uniquely determines a document ID; this is obviously incorrect as we have two versions of pool files. The outcome is that all the PRI-based relevance labels for the WWW-2 test collection are incorrect (while all the RND-based relevance labels are correct), and all the RND-based relevance labels for the WWW-3 and WWW-4 test collections are incorrect (while all the PRI-based relevance labels are correct). This bug was finally discovered at the NTCIR-16 WWW-4 task when the first seven authors of this paper served as Gold assessors (i.e., topic creators who define what is relevant) and closely examined the disagreements with Bronze assessors (i.e., non-topic-creators; non-experts). We would like to apologise to the WWW participants and the NTCIR chairs for the inconvenience and confusion caused due to this bug.
Neural retrieval models are generally regarded as fundamentally different from the retrieval techniques used in the late 1990's when the TREC ad hoc test collections were constructed. They thus provide the opportunity to empirically test the claim that pooling-built test collections can reliably evaluate retrieval systems that did not contribute to the construction of the collection (in other words, that such collections can be reusable). To test the reusability claim, we asked TREC assessors to judge new pools created from new search results for the TREC-8 ad hoc collection. These new search results consisted of five new runs (one each from three transformer-based models and two baseline runs that use BM25) plus the set of TREC-8 submissions that did not previously contribute to pools. The new runs did retrieve previously unseen documents, but the vast majority of those documents were not relevant. The ranking of all runs by mean evaluation score when evaluated using the official TREC-8 relevance judgment set and the newly expanded relevance set are almost identical, with Kendall's tau correlations greater than 0.99. Correlations for individual topics are also high. The TREC-8 ad hoc collection was originally constructed using deep pools over a diverse set of runs, including several effective manual runs. Its judgment budget, and hence construction cost, was relatively large. However, it does appear that the expense was well-spent: even with the advent of neural techniques, the collection has stood the test of time and remains a reliable evaluation instrument as retrieval techniques have advanced.
Rapidly growing online podcast archives contain diverse content on a wide range of topics. These archives form an important resource for entertainment and professional use, but their value can only be realized if users can rapidly and reliably locate content of interest. Search for relevant content can be based on metadata provided by content creators, but also on transcripts of the spoken content itself. Excavating relevant content from deep within these audio streams for diverse types of information needs requires varying the approach to systems prototyping. We describe a set of diverse podcast information needs and different approaches to assessing retrieved content for relevance. We use these information needs in an investigation of the utility and effectiveness of these information sources. Based on our analysis, we recommend approaches for indexing and retrieving podcast content for ad hoc search.
We present an overview of the TREC-COVID Challenge, an information retrieval (IR) shared task to evaluate search on scientific literature related to COVID-19. The goals of TREC-COVID include the construction of a pandemic search test collection and the evaluation of IR methods for COVID-19. The challenge was conducted over five rounds from April to July, 2020, with participation from 92 unique teams and 556 individual submissions. A total of 50 topics (sets of related queries) were used in the evaluation, starting at 30 topics for Round 1 and adding 5 new topics per round to target emerging topics at that state of the still-emerging pandemic. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and results of TREC-COVID. Specifically, the paper provides details on the background, task structure, topic structure, corpus, participation, pooling, assessment, judgments, results, top-performing systems, lessons learned, and benchmark datasets.
The TREC Deep Learning (DL) Track studies ad hoc search in the large data regime, meaning that a large set of human-labeled training data is available. Results so far indicate that the best models with large data may be deep neural networks. This paper supports the reuse of the TREC DL test collections in three ways. First we describe the data sets in detail, documenting clearly and in one place some details that are otherwise scattered in track guidelines, overview papers and in our associated MS MARCO leaderboard pages. We intend this description to make it easy for newcomers to use the TREC DL data. Second, because there is some risk of iteration and selection bias when reusing a data set, we describe the best practices for writing a paper using TREC DL data, without overfitting. We provide some illustrative analysis. Finally we address a number of issues around the TREC DL data, including an analysis of reusability.
In this paper we propose a new evaluation challenge and direction in the area of High-level Video Understanding. The challenge we are proposing is designed to test automatic video analysis and understanding, and how accurately systems can comprehend a movie in terms of actors, entities, events and their relationship to each other. A pilot High-Level Video Understanding (HLVU) dataset of open source movies were collected for human assessors to build a knowledge graph representing each of them. A set of queries will be derived from the knowledge graph to test systems on retrieving relationships among actors, as well as reasoning and retrieving non-visual concepts. The objective is to benchmark if a computer system can "understand" non-explicit but obvious relationships the same way humans do when they watch the same movies. This is long-standing problem that is being addressed in the text domain and this project moves similar research to the video domain. Work of this nature is foundational to future video analytics and video understanding technologies. This work can be of interest to streaming services and broadcasters hoping to provide more intuitive ways for their customers to interact with and consume video content.