With the rise of online abuse, the NLP community has begun investigating the use of neural architectures to generate counterspeech that can "counter" the vicious tone of such abusive speech and dilute/ameliorate their rippling effect over the social network. However, most of the efforts so far have been primarily focused on English. To bridge the gap for low-resource languages such as Bengali and Hindi, we create a benchmark dataset of 5,062 abusive speech/counterspeech pairs, of which 2,460 pairs are in Bengali and 2,602 pairs are in Hindi. We implement several baseline models considering various interlingual transfer mechanisms with different configurations to generate suitable counterspeech to set up an effective benchmark. We observe that the monolingual setup yields the best performance. Further, using synthetic transfer, language models can generate counterspeech to some extent; specifically, we notice that transferability is better when languages belong to the same language family.
In the continuously advancing AI landscape, crafting context-rich and meaningful responses via Large Language Models (LLMs) is essential. Researchers are becoming more aware of the challenges that LLMs with fewer parameters encounter when trying to provide suitable answers to open-ended questions. To address these hurdles, the integration of cutting-edge strategies, augmentation of rich external domain knowledge to LLMs, offers significant improvements. This paper introduces a novel framework that combines graph-driven context retrieval in conjunction to knowledge graphs based enhancement, honing the proficiency of LLMs, especially in domain specific community question answering platforms like AskUbuntu, Unix, and ServerFault. We conduct experiments on various LLMs with different parameter sizes to evaluate their ability to ground knowledge and determine factual accuracy in answers to open-ended questions. Our methodology GraphContextGen consistently outperforms dominant text-based retrieval systems, demonstrating its robustness and adaptability to a larger number of use cases. This advancement highlights the importance of pairing context rich data retrieval with LLMs, offering a renewed approach to knowledge sourcing and generation in AI systems. We also show that, due to rich contextual data retrieval, the crucial entities, along with the generated answer, remain factually coherent with the gold answer.
Recently efforts have been made by social media platforms as well as researchers to detect hateful or toxic language using large language models. However, none of these works aim to use explanation, additional context and victim community information in the detection process. We utilise different prompt variation, input information and evaluate large language models in zero shot setting (without adding any in-context examples). We select three large language models (GPT-3.5, text-davinci and Flan-T5) and three datasets - HateXplain, implicit hate and ToxicSpans. We find that on average including the target information in the pipeline improves the model performance substantially (~20-30%) over the baseline across the datasets. There is also a considerable effect of adding the rationales/explanations into the pipeline (~10-20%) over the baseline across the datasets. In addition, we further provide a typology of the error cases where these large language models fail to (i) classify and (ii) explain the reason for the decisions they take. Such vulnerable points automatically constitute 'jailbreak' prompts for these models and industry scale safeguard techniques need to be developed to make the models robust against such prompts.
* 13 pages, 9 figures, 7 tables, accepted to findings of EMNLP 2023
The dramatic increase in the use of social media platforms for information sharing has also fueled a steep growth in online abuse. A simple yet effective way of abusing individuals or communities is by creating memes, which often integrate an image with a short piece of text layered on top of it. Such harmful elements are in rampant use and are a threat to online safety. Hence it is necessary to develop efficient models to detect and flag abusive memes. The problem becomes more challenging in a low-resource setting (e.g., Bengali memes, i.e., images with Bengali text embedded on it) because of the absence of benchmark datasets on which AI models could be trained. In this paper we bridge this gap by building a Bengali meme dataset. To setup an effective benchmark we implement several baseline models for classifying abusive memes using this dataset. We observe that multimodal models that use both textual and visual information outperform unimodal models. Our best-performing model achieves a macro F1 score of 70.51. Finally, we perform a qualitative error analysis of the misclassified memes of the best-performing text-based, image-based and multimodal models.
AI models have become extremely popular and accessible to the general public. However, they are continuously under the scanner due to their demonstrable biases toward various sections of the society like people of color and non-binary people. In this study, we audit three existing gender analyzers -- uClassify, Readable and HackerFactor, for biases against non-binary individuals. These tools are designed to predict only the cisgender binary labels, which leads to discrimination against non-binary members of the society. We curate two datasets -- Reddit comments (660k) and, Tumblr posts (2.05M) and our experimental evaluation shows that the tools are highly inaccurate with the overall accuracy being ~50% on all platforms. Predictions for non-binary comments on all platforms are mostly female, thus propagating the societal bias that non-binary individuals are effeminate. To address this, we fine-tune a BERT multi-label classifier on the two datasets in multiple combinations, observe an overall performance of ~77% on the most realistically deployable setting and a surprisingly higher performance of 90% for the non-binary class. We also audit ChatGPT using zero-shot prompts on a small dataset (due to high pricing) and observe an average accuracy of 58% for Reddit and Tumblr combined (with overall better results for Reddit). Thus, we show that existing systems, including highly advanced ones like ChatGPT are biased, and need better audits and moderation and, that such societal biases can be addressed and alleviated through simple off-the-shelf models like BERT trained on more gender inclusive datasets.
* This work has been accepted at IEEE/ACM ASONAM 2023. Please cite the
version appearing in the ASONAM proceedings
Interdisciplinarity has over the recent years have gained tremendous importance and has become one of the key ways of doing cutting edge research. In this paper we attempt to model the citation flow across three different fields -- Physics (PHY), Mathematics (MA) and Computer Science (CS). For instance, is there a specific pattern in which these fields cite one another? We carry out experiments on a dataset comprising more than 1.2 million articles taken from these three fields. We quantify the citation interactions among these three fields through temporal bucket signatures. We present numerical models based on variants of the recently proposed relay-linking framework to explain the citation dynamics across the three disciplines. These models make a modest attempt to unfold the underlying principles of how citation links could have been formed across the three fields over time.
Community Question Answering (CQA) platforms steadily gain popularity as they provide users with fast responses to their queries. The swiftness of these responses is contingent on a mixture of query-specific and user-related elements. This paper scrutinizes these contributing factors within the context of six highly popular CQA platforms, identified through their standout answering speed. Our investigation reveals a correlation between the time taken to yield the first response to a question and several variables: the metadata, the formulation of the questions, and the level of interaction among users. Additionally, by employing conventional machine learning models to analyze these metadata and patterns of user interaction, we endeavor to predict which queries will receive their initial responses promptly.
Personality types are important in various fields as they hold relevant information about the characteristics of a human being in an explainable format. They are often good predictors of a person's behaviors in a particular environment and have applications ranging from candidate selection to marketing and mental health. Recently automatic detection of personality traits from texts has gained significant attention in computational linguistics. Most personality detection and analysis methods have focused on small datasets making their experimental observations often limited. To bridge this gap, we focus on collecting and releasing the largest automatically curated dataset for the research community which has 152 million tweets and 56 thousand data points for the Myers-Briggs personality type (MBTI) prediction task. We perform a series of extensive qualitative and quantitative studies on our dataset to analyze the data patterns in a better way and infer conclusions. We show how our intriguing analysis results often follow natural intuition. We also perform a series of ablation studies to show how the baselines perform for our dataset.
Community Question Answering (CQA) in different domains is growing at a large scale because of the availability of several platforms and huge shareable information among users. With the rapid growth of such online platforms, a massive amount of archived data makes it difficult for moderators to retrieve possible duplicates for a new question and identify and confirm existing question pairs as duplicates at the right time. This problem is even more critical in CQAs corresponding to large software systems like askubuntu where moderators need to be experts to comprehend something as a duplicate. Note that the prime challenge in such CQA platforms is that the moderators are themselves experts and are therefore usually extremely busy with their time being extraordinarily expensive. To facilitate the task of the moderators, in this work, we have tackled two significant issues for the askubuntu CQA platform: (1) retrieval of duplicate questions given a new question and (2) duplicate question confirmation time prediction. In the first task, we focus on retrieving duplicate questions from a question pool for a particular newly posted question. In the second task, we solve a regression problem to rank a pair of questions that could potentially take a long time to get confirmed as duplicates. For duplicate question retrieval, we propose a Siamese neural network based approach by exploiting both text and network-based features, which outperforms several state-of-the-art baseline techniques. Our method outperforms DupPredictor and DUPE by 5% and 7% respectively. For duplicate confirmation time prediction, we have used both the standard machine learning models and neural network along with the text and graph-based features. We obtain Spearman's rank correlation of 0.20 and 0.213 (statistically significant) for text and graph based features respectively.
* Full paper accepted at ASONAM 2023: The 2023 IEEE/ACM International
Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining