Answering real-world tourism questions that seek Point-of-Interest (POI) recommendations is challenging, as it requires both spatial and non-spatial reasoning, over a large candidate pool. The traditional method of encoding each pair of question and POI becomes inefficient when the number of candidates increases, making it infeasible for real-world applications. To overcome this, we propose treating the QA task as a dense vector retrieval problem, where we encode questions and POIs separately and retrieve the most relevant POIs for a question by utilizing embedding space similarity. We use pretrained language models (PLMs) to encode textual information, and train a location encoder to capture spatial information of POIs. Experiments on a real-world tourism QA dataset demonstrate that our approach is effective, efficient, and outperforms previous methods across all metrics. Enabled by the dense retrieval architecture, we further build a global evaluation baseline, expanding the search space by 20 times compared to previous work. We also explore several factors that impact on the model's performance through follow-up experiments. Our code and model are publicly available at https://github.com/haonan-li/LAMB.
While instructions fine-tuning of large language models (LLMs) has been proven to enhance performance across various applications, the influence of the instruction dataset mixture on LLMs has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, we classify instructions into three main types: NLP downstream tasks, coding, and general chatting, and investigate their impact on LLMs. Our findings reveal that specific types of instructions are more beneficial for particular uses, while it may cause harms to other aspects, emphasizing the importance of meticulously designing the instruction mixture to maximize model performance. This study sheds light on the instruction mixture and paves the way for future research.
* Instruction Tuning, Large Language Model, Alignment
The recent surge in open-source Large Language Models (LLMs), such as LLaMA, Falcon, and Mistral, provides diverse options for AI practitioners and researchers. However, most LLMs have only released partial artifacts, such as the final model weights or inference code, and technical reports increasingly limit their scope to high-level design choices and surface statistics. These choices hinder progress in the field by degrading transparency into the training of LLMs and forcing teams to rediscover many details in the training process. We present LLM360, an initiative to fully open-source LLMs, which advocates for all training code and data, model checkpoints, and intermediate results to be made available to the community. The goal of LLM360 is to support open and collaborative AI research by making the end-to-end LLM training process transparent and reproducible by everyone. As a first step of LLM360, we release two 7B parameter LLMs pre-trained from scratch, Amber and CrystalCoder, including their training code, data, intermediate checkpoints, and analyses (at https://www.llm360.ai). We are committed to continually pushing the boundaries of LLMs through this open-source effort. More large-scale and stronger models are underway and will be released in the future.
Large language models (LLMs) have showcased remarkable capabilities in understanding and generating language. However, their ability in comprehending ancient languages, particularly ancient Chinese, remains largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we present ACLUE, an evaluation benchmark designed to assess the capability of language models in comprehending ancient Chinese. ACLUE consists of 15 tasks cover a range of skills, spanning phonetic, lexical, syntactic, semantic, inference and knowledge. Through the evaluation of eight state-of-the-art LLMs, we observed a noticeable disparity in their performance between modern Chinese and ancient Chinese. Among the assessed models, ChatGLM2 demonstrates the most remarkable performance, achieving an average score of 37.4%. We have made our code and data public available.
Large language models have made significant advancements in natural language processing (NLP), exhibiting human performance across various classic NLP tasks. These tasks, however, focus on structure and semantics, and few are designed to assess reasoning abilities and real-world knowledge, which are increasingly vital given that these models are trained on extensive textual data and information. While prior research primarily focuses on English, in this work, we gather a collection of exam problems from primary school to university entrance tests in Indonesia, and evaluate whether large language models can pass the exams. We obtain 14,906 questions across 63 tasks and levels, with 46\% of the questions focusing on assessing proficiency in the Indonesian language and knowledge of nine local languages and cultures in Indonesia. Our empirical evaluations show that GPT-3.5 only manages to pass the Indonesian primary school level, with limited knowledge of the Indonesian local languages and cultures. Other smaller models such as BLOOMZ and Falcon fail the exams.
With the rapid evolution of large language models (LLMs), new and hard-to-predict harmful capabilities are emerging. This requires developers to be able to identify risks through the evaluation of "dangerous capabilities" in order to responsibly deploy LLMs. In this work, we collect the first open-source dataset to evaluate safeguards in LLMs, and deploy safer open-source LLMs at a low cost. Our dataset is curated and filtered to consist only of instructions that responsible language models should not follow. We annotate and assess the responses of six popular LLMs to these instructions. Based on our annotation, we proceed to train several BERT-like classifiers, and find that these small classifiers can achieve results that are comparable with GPT-4 on automatic safety evaluation. Warning: this paper contains example data that may be offensive, harmful, or biased.
We introduce Jais and Jais-chat, new state-of-the-art Arabic-centric foundation and instruction-tuned open generative large language models (LLMs). The models are based on the GPT-3 decoder-only architecture and are pretrained on a mixture of Arabic and English texts, including source code in various programming languages. With 13 billion parameters, they demonstrate better knowledge and reasoning capabilities in Arabic than any existing open Arabic and multilingual models by a sizable margin, based on extensive evaluation. Moreover, the models are competitive in English compared to English-centric open models of similar size, despite being trained on much less English data. We provide a detailed description of the training, the tuning, the safety alignment, and the evaluation of the models. We release two open versions of the model -- the foundation Jais model, and an instruction-tuned Jais-chat variant -- with the aim of promoting research on Arabic LLMs. Available at https://huggingface.co/inception-mbzuai/jais-13b-chat
Static analysis is a widely used technique in software engineering for identifying and mitigating bugs. However, a significant hurdle lies in achieving a delicate balance between precision and scalability. Large Language Models (LLMs) offer a promising alternative, as recent advances demonstrate remarkable capabilities in comprehending, generating, and even debugging code. Yet, the logic of bugs can be complex and require sophisticated reasoning and a large analysis scope spanning multiple functions. Therefore, at this point, LLMs are better used in an assistive role to complement static analysis. In this paper, we take a deep dive into the open space of LLM-assisted static analysis, using use-before-initialization (UBI) bugs as a case study. To this end, we develop LLift, a fully automated agent that interfaces with both a static analysis tool and an LLM. By carefully designing the agent and the prompts, we are able to overcome a number of challenges, including bug-specific modeling, the large problem scope, the non-deterministic nature of LLMs, etc. Tested in a real-world scenario analyzing nearly a thousand potential UBI bugs produced by static analysis, LLift demonstrates an extremely potent capability, showcasing a high precision (50%) and recall rate (100%). It even identified 13 previously unknown UBI bugs in the Linux kernel. This research paves the way for new opportunities and methodologies in the use of LLMs for bug discovery in extensive, real-world datasets.
As the capabilities of large language models (LLMs) continue to advance, evaluating their performance becomes increasingly crucial and challenging. This paper aims to bridge this gap by introducing CMMLU, a comprehensive Chinese benchmark that covers various subjects, including natural science, social sciences, engineering, and humanities. We conduct a thorough evaluation of 18 advanced multilingual- and Chinese-oriented LLMs, assessing their performance across different subjects and settings. The results reveal that most existing LLMs struggle to achieve an average accuracy of 50%, even when provided with in-context examples and chain-of-thought prompts, whereas the random baseline stands at 25%. This highlights significant room for improvement in LLMs. Additionally, we conduct extensive experiments to identify factors impacting the models' performance and propose directions for enhancing LLMs. CMMLU fills the gap in evaluating the knowledge and reasoning capabilities of large language models within the Chinese context.