Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive performance on Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, such as Question Answering, Summarization, and Classification. The use of LLMs as evaluators, that can rank or score the output of other models (usually LLMs) has become increasingly popular, due to the limitations of current evaluation techniques including the lack of appropriate benchmarks, metrics, cost, and access to human annotators. While LLMs are capable of handling approximately 100 languages, the majority of languages beyond the top 20 lack systematic evaluation across various tasks, metrics, and benchmarks. This creates an urgent need to scale up multilingual evaluation to ensure a precise understanding of LLM performance across diverse languages. LLM-based evaluators seem like the perfect solution to this problem, as they do not require human annotators, human-created references, or benchmarks and can theoretically be used to evaluate any language covered by the LLM. In this paper, we investigate whether LLM-based evaluators can help scale up multilingual evaluation. Specifically, we calibrate LLM-based evaluation against 20k human judgments of five metrics across three text-generation tasks in eight languages. Our findings indicate that LLM-based evaluators may exhibit bias towards higher scores and should be used with caution and should always be calibrated with a dataset of native speaker judgments, particularly in low-resource and non-Latin script languages.
Task-oriented dialogue research has mainly focused on a few popular languages like English and Chinese, due to the high dataset creation cost for a new language. To reduce the cost, we apply manual editing to automatically translated data. We create a new multilingual benchmark, X-RiSAWOZ, by translating the Chinese RiSAWOZ to 4 languages: English, French, Hindi, Korean; and a code-mixed English-Hindi language. X-RiSAWOZ has more than 18,000 human-verified dialogue utterances for each language, and unlike most multilingual prior work, is an end-to-end dataset for building fully-functioning agents. The many difficulties we encountered in creating X-RiSAWOZ led us to develop a toolset to accelerate the post-editing of a new language dataset after translation. This toolset improves machine translation with a hybrid entity alignment technique that combines neural with dictionary-based methods, along with many automated and semi-automated validation checks. We establish strong baselines for X-RiSAWOZ by training dialogue agents in the zero- and few-shot settings where limited gold data is available in the target language. Our results suggest that our translation and post-editing methodology and toolset can be used to create new high-quality multilingual dialogue agents cost-effectively. Our dataset, code, and toolkit are released open-source.
Recent explorations with commercial Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown that non-expert users can jailbreak LLMs by simply manipulating the prompts; resulting in degenerate output behavior, privacy and security breaches, offensive outputs, and violations of content regulator policies. Limited formal studies have been carried out to formalize and analyze these attacks and their mitigations. We bridge this gap by proposing a formalism and a taxonomy of known (and possible) jailbreaks. We perform a survey of existing jailbreak methods and their effectiveness on open-source and commercial LLMs (such as GPT 3.5, OPT, BLOOM, and FLAN-T5-xxl). We further propose a limited set of prompt guards and discuss their effectiveness against known attack types.
Visual document understanding is a complex task that involves analyzing both the text and the visual elements in document images. Existing models often rely on manual feature engineering or domain-specific pipelines, which limit their generalization ability across different document types and languages. In this paper, we propose DUBLIN, which is pretrained on web pages using three novel objectives: Masked Document Content Generation Task, Bounding Box Task, and Rendered Question Answering Task, that leverage both the spatial and semantic information in the document images. Our model achieves competitive or state-of-the-art results on several benchmarks, such as Web-Based Structural Reading Comprehension, Document Visual Question Answering, Key Information Extraction, Diagram Understanding, and Table Question Answering. In particular, we show that DUBLIN is the first pixel-based model to achieve an EM of 77.75 and F1 of 84.25 on the WebSRC dataset. We also show that our model outperforms the current pixel-based SoTA models on DocVQA and AI2D datasets by 2% and 21%, respectively. Also, DUBLIN is the first ever pixel-based model which achieves comparable performance to text-based SoTA methods on XFUND dataset for Semantic Entity Recognition showcasing its multilingual capability. Moreover, we create new baselines for text-based datasets by rendering them as document images to promote research in this direction.
This paper aims to explore the potential of leveraging Large Language Models (LLMs) for data augmentation in crosslingual commonsense reasoning datasets, where the available training data is extremely limited. To achieve this, we employ several LLMs including Dolly-v2, StableVicuna, ChatGPT, and GPT-4 to augment three datasets: XCOPA, XWinograd, and XStoryCloze. Subsequently, we assess the effectiveness of fine-tuning smaller crosslingual models, mBERT and XLMR, using the synthesised data. We compare the performance of training with data generated in English and target languages, as well as translating the English-generated data into the target languages. Our experiments reveal the overall advantages of incorporating data generated by LLMs. Training on synthetic data generated by GPT-4, whether English or multilingual, improves performance consistently compared to the baseline. Other models also exhibit an overall increase in performance, however, their effectiveness decreases in some settings. We also ask native speakers to evaluate the naturalness and logical soundness of the generated examples for different languages. Human evaluation reveals that LLMs like ChatGPT and GPT-4 excel at generating natural text in most languages, except a few such as Tamil. Moreover, ChatGPT trails behind in generating plausible alternatives in comparison to the original dataset, while GPT-4 demonstrates competitive logic consistency in the synthesised data.
Zero-shot cross-lingual transfer is promising, however has been shown to be sub-optimal, with inferior transfer performance across low-resource languages. In this work, we envision languages as domains for improving zero-shot transfer by jointly reducing the feature incongruity between the source and the target language and increasing the generalization capabilities of pre-trained multilingual transformers. We show that our approach, DiTTO, significantly outperforms the standard zero-shot fine-tuning method on multiple datasets across all languages using solely unlabeled instances in the target language. Empirical results show that jointly reducing feature incongruity for multiple target languages is vital for successful cross-lingual transfer. Moreover, our model enables better cross-lingual transfer than standard fine-tuning methods, even in the few-shot setting.
With language models becoming increasingly ubiquitous, it has become essential to address their inequitable treatment of diverse demographic groups and factors. Most research on evaluating and mitigating fairness harms has been concentrated on English, while multilingual models and non-English languages have received comparatively little attention. This paper presents a survey of fairness in multilingual and non-English contexts, highlighting the shortcomings of current research and the difficulties faced by methods designed for English. We contend that the multitude of diverse cultures and languages across the world makes it infeasible to achieve comprehensive coverage in terms of constructing fairness datasets. Thus, the measurement and mitigation of biases must evolve beyond the current dataset-driven practices that are narrowly focused on specific dimensions and types of biases and, therefore, impossible to scale across languages and cultures.
Leveraging shared learning through Massively Multilingual Models, state-of-the-art machine translation models are often able to adapt to the paucity of data for low-resource languages. However, this performance comes at the cost of significantly bloated models which are not practically deployable. Knowledge Distillation is one popular technique to develop competitive, lightweight models: In this work, we first evaluate its use to compress MT models focusing on languages with extremely limited training data. Through our analysis across 8 languages, we find that the variance in the performance of the distilled models due to their dependence on priors including the amount of synthetic data used for distillation, the student architecture, training hyperparameters and confidence of the teacher models, makes distillation a brittle compression mechanism. To mitigate this, we explore the use of post-training quantization for the compression of these models. Here, we find that while distillation provides gains across some low-resource languages, quantization provides more consistent performance trends for the entire range of languages, especially the lowest-resource languages in our target set.