Learning to solve tasks from a sparse reward signal is a major challenge for standard reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms. However, in the real world, agents rarely need to solve sparse reward tasks entirely from scratch. More often, we might possess prior experience to draw on that provides considerable guidance about which actions and outcomes are possible in the world, which we can use to explore more effectively for new tasks. In this work, we study how prior data without reward labels may be used to guide and accelerate exploration for an agent solving a new sparse reward task. We propose a simple approach that learns a reward model from online experience, labels the unlabeled prior data with optimistic rewards, and then uses it concurrently alongside the online data for downstream policy and critic optimization. This general formula leads to rapid exploration in several challenging sparse-reward domains where tabula rasa exploration is insufficient, including the AntMaze domain, Adroit hand manipulation domain, and a visual simulated robotic manipulation domain. Our results highlight the ease of incorporating unlabeled prior data into existing online RL algorithms, and the (perhaps surprising) effectiveness of doing so.
* 25 pages, 16 figures, 37th Conference on Neural Information
Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2023)
Brain tumor segmentation presents a formidable challenge in the field of Medical Image Segmentation. While deep-learning models have been useful, human expert segmentation remains the most accurate method. The recently released Segment Anything Model (SAM) has opened up the opportunity to apply foundation models to this difficult task. However, SAM was primarily trained on diverse natural images. This makes applying SAM to biomedical segmentation, such as brain tumors with less defined boundaries, challenging. In this paper, we enhanced SAM's mask decoder using transfer learning with the Decathlon brain tumor dataset. We developed three methods to encapsulate the four-dimensional data into three dimensions for SAM. An on-the-fly data augmentation approach has been used with a combination of rotations and elastic deformations to increase the size of the training dataset. Two key metrics: the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and the Hausdorff Distance 95th Percentile (HD95), have been applied to assess the performance of our segmentation models. These metrics provided valuable insights into the quality of the segmentation results. In our evaluation, we compared this improved model to two benchmarks: the pretrained SAM and the widely used model, nnUNetv2. We find that the improved SAM shows considerable improvement over the pretrained SAM, while nnUNetv2 outperformed the improved SAM in terms of overall segmentation accuracy. Nevertheless, the improved SAM demonstrated slightly more consistent results than nnUNetv2, especially on challenging cases that can lead to larger Hausdorff distances. In the future, more advanced techniques can be applied in order to further improve the performance of SAM on brain tumor segmentation.
The 5' UTR, a regulatory region at the beginning of an mRNA molecule, plays a crucial role in regulating the translation process and impacts the protein expression level. Language models have showcased their effectiveness in decoding the functions of protein and genome sequences. Here, we introduced a language model for 5' UTR, which we refer to as the UTR-LM. The UTR-LM is pre-trained on endogenous 5' UTRs from multiple species and is further augmented with supervised information including secondary structure and minimum free energy. We fine-tuned the UTR-LM in a variety of downstream tasks. The model outperformed the best-known benchmark by up to 42% for predicting the Mean Ribosome Loading, and by up to 60% for predicting the Translation Efficiency and the mRNA Expression Level. The model also applies to identifying unannotated Internal Ribosome Entry Sites within the untranslated region and improves the AUPR from 0.37 to 0.52 compared to the best baseline. Further, we designed a library of 211 novel 5' UTRs with high predicted values of translation efficiency and evaluated them via a wet-lab assay. Experiment results confirmed that our top designs achieved a 32.5% increase in protein production level relative to well-established 5' UTR optimized for therapeutics.
* Sorry for withdrawing this manuscript. Because we want to major
revised this manuscript, and it need some time
Engineering knowledge-based (or expert) systems require extensive manual effort and domain knowledge. As Large Language Models (LLMs) are trained using an enormous amount of cross-domain knowledge, it becomes possible to automate such engineering processes. This paper presents an empirical automation and semi-automation framework for domain knowledge distillation using prompt engineering and the LLM ChatGPT. We assess the framework empirically in the autonomous driving domain and present our key observations. In our implementation, we construct the domain knowledge ontology by "chatting" with ChatGPT. The key finding is that while fully automated domain ontology construction is possible, human supervision and early intervention typically improve efficiency and output quality as they lessen the effects of response randomness and the butterfly effect. We, therefore, also develop a web-based distillation assistant enabling supervision and flexible intervention at runtime. We hope our findings and tools could inspire future research toward revolutionizing the engineering of knowledge-based systems across application domains.
This paper mainly describes the dma submission to the TempoWiC task, which achieves a macro-F1 score of 77.05% and attains the first place in this task. We first explore the impact of different pre-trained language models. Then we adopt data cleaning, data augmentation, and adversarial training strategies to enhance the model generalization and robustness. For further improvement, we integrate POS information and word semantic representation using a Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) approach. The experimental results show that MoE can overcome the feature overuse issue and combine the context, POS, and word semantic features well. Additionally, we use a model ensemble method for the final prediction, which has been proven effective by many research works.
The primary focus of this paper is to produce a proof of concept for extracting drowsiness information from videos to help elderly living on their own. To quantify yawning, eyelid and head movement over time, we extracted 3000 images from captured videos for training and testing of deep learning models integrated with OpenCV library. The achieved classification accuracy for eyelid and mouth open/close status were between 94.3%-97.2%. Visual inspection of head movement from videos with generated 3D coordinate overlays, indicated clear spatiotemporal patterns in collected data (yaw, roll and pitch). Extraction methodology of the drowsiness information as timeseries is applicable to other contexts including support for prior work in privacy-preserving augmented coaching, sport rehabilitation, and integration with big data platform in healthcare.
* This unpublished paper was accepted by the Conference on Innovative
Technologies in Intelligent Systems & Industrial Applications (CITISIA 2020)
[https://ieee-citisia.org] and uploaded to ArXiv.org preprint server. The
camera-ready copy with DOI should be available in IEEE Xplore sometimes after
the conference presentation and copyright transfer to IEEE
Cyber security threats have been growing significantly in both volume and sophistication over the past decade. This poses great challenges to malware detection without considerable automation. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach by extending our recently suggested artificial neural network (ANN) based model with feature selection using the principal component analysis (PCA) technique for malware detection. The effectiveness of the approach has been successfully demonstrated with the application in PDF malware detection. A varying number of principal components is examined in the comparative study. Our evaluation shows that the model with PCA can significantly reduce feature redundancy and learning time with minimum impact on data information loss, as confirmed by both training and testing results based on around 105,000 real-world PDF documents. Of the evaluated models using PCA, the model with 32 principal feature components exhibits very similar training accuracy to the model using the 48 original features, resulting in around 33% dimensionality reduction and 22% less learning time. The testing results further confirm the effectiveness and show that the model is able to achieve 93.17% true positive rate (TPR) while maintaining the same low false positive rate (FPR) of 0.08% as the case when no feature selection is applied, which significantly outperforms all evaluated seven well known commercial antivirus (AV) scanners of which the best scanner only has a TPR of 84.53%.
From an image of a person in action, we can easily guess the 3D motion of the person in the immediate past and future. This is because we have a mental model of 3D human dynamics that we have acquired from observing visual sequences of humans in motion. We present a framework that can similarly learn a representation of 3D dynamics of humans from video via a simple but effective temporal encoding of image features. At test time, from video, the learned temporal representation can recover smooth 3D mesh predictions. From a single image, our model can recover the current 3D mesh as well as its 3D past and future motion. Our approach is designed so it can learn from videos with 2D pose annotations in a semi-supervised manner. However, annotated data is always limited. On the other hand, there are millions of videos uploaded daily on the Internet. In this work, we harvest this Internet-scale source of unlabeled data by training our model on them with pseudo-ground truth 2D pose obtained from an off-the-shelf 2D pose detector. Our experiments show that adding more videos with pseudo-ground truth 2D pose monotonically improves 3D prediction performance. We evaluate our model on the recent challenging dataset of 3D Poses in the Wild and obtain state-of-the-art performance on the 3D prediction task without any fine-tuning. The project website with video can be found at https://akanazawa.github.io/human_dynamics/.