Machine learning models deployed in the wild can be challenged by out-of-distribution (OOD) data from unknown classes. Recent advances in OOD detection rely on distance measures to distinguish samples that are relatively far away from the in-distribution (ID) data. Despite the promise, distance-based methods can suffer from the curse-of-dimensionality problem, which limits the efficacy in high-dimensional feature space. To combat this problem, we propose a novel framework, Subspace Nearest Neighbor (SNN), for OOD detection. In training, our method regularizes the model and its feature representation by leveraging the most relevant subset of dimensions (i.e. subspace). Subspace learning yields highly distinguishable distance measures between ID and OOD data. We provide comprehensive experiments and ablations to validate the efficacy of SNN. Compared to the current best distance-based method, SNN reduces the average FPR95 by 15.96% on the CIFAR-100 benchmark.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have revolutionized the domain of natural language processing (NLP) with remarkable capabilities of generating human-like text responses. However, despite these advancements, several works in the existing literature have raised serious concerns about the potential misuse of LLMs such as spreading misinformation, generating fake news, plagiarism in academia, and contaminating the web. To address these concerns, a consensus among the research community is to develop algorithmic solutions to detect AI-generated text. The basic idea is that whenever we can tell if the given text is either written by a human or an AI, we can utilize this information to address the above-mentioned concerns. To that end, a plethora of detection frameworks have been proposed, highlighting the possibilities of AI-generated text detection. But in parallel to the development of detection frameworks, researchers have also concentrated on designing strategies to elude detection, i.e., focusing on the impossibilities of AI-generated text detection. This is a crucial step in order to make sure the detection frameworks are robust enough and it is not too easy to fool a detector. Despite the huge interest and the flurry of research in this domain, the community currently lacks a comprehensive analysis of recent developments. In this survey, we aim to provide a concise categorization and overview of current work encompassing both the prospects and the limitations of AI-generated text detection. To enrich the collective knowledge, we engage in an exhaustive discussion on critical and challenging open questions related to ongoing research on AI-generated text detection.
Modern machine learning models may be susceptible to learning spurious correlations that hold on average but not for the atypical group of samples. To address the problem, previous approaches minimize the empirical worst-group risk. Despite the promise, they often assume that each sample belongs to one and only one group, which does not allow expressing the uncertainty in group labeling. In this paper, we propose a novel framework PG-DRO, which explores the idea of probabilistic group membership for distributionally robust optimization. Key to our framework, we consider soft group membership instead of hard group annotations. The group probabilities can be flexibly generated using either supervised learning or zero-shot approaches. Our framework accommodates samples with group membership ambiguity, offering stronger flexibility and generality than the prior art. We comprehensively evaluate PG-DRO on both image classification and natural language processing benchmarks, establishing superior performance
Deep neural networks may be susceptible to learning spurious correlations that hold on average but not in atypical test samples. As with the recent emergence of vision transformer (ViT) models, it remains underexplored how spurious correlations are manifested in such architectures. In this paper, we systematically investigate the robustness of vision transformers to spurious correlations on three challenging benchmark datasets and compare their performance with popular CNNs. Our study reveals that when pre-trained on a sufficiently large dataset, ViT models are more robust to spurious correlations than CNNs. Key to their success is the ability to generalize better from the examples where spurious correlations do not hold. Further, we perform extensive ablations and experiments to understand the role of the self-attention mechanism in providing robustness under spuriously correlated environments. We hope that our work will inspire future research on further understanding the robustness of ViT models.
Disinformation is often presented in long textual articles, especially when it relates to domains such as health, often seen in relation to COVID-19. These articles are typically observed to have a number of trustworthy sentences among which core disinformation sentences are scattered. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised task of identifying sentences containing key disinformation within a document that is known to be untrustworthy. We design a three-phase statistical NLP solution for the task which starts with embedding sentences within a bespoke feature space designed for the task. Sentences represented using those features are then clustered, following which the key sentences are identified through proximity scoring. We also curate a new dataset with sentence level disinformation scorings to aid evaluation for this task; the dataset is being made publicly available to facilitate further research. Based on a comprehensive empirical evaluation against techniques from related tasks such as claim detection and summarization, as well as against simplified variants of our proposed approach, we illustrate that our method is able to identify core disinformation effectively.
* The 22nd International Conference on Information Integration and
Web-based Applications & Services (iiWAS '20), Chiang Mai, Thailand