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Hao Jiang, Wangqi Shi, Zaichen Zhang, Cunhua Pan, Qingqing Wu, Feng Shu, Ruiqi Liu, Jiangzhou Wang

Existing works mainly rely on the far-field planar-wave-based channel model to assess the performance of reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-enabled wireless communication systems. However, when the transmitter and receiver are in near-field ranges, this will result in relatively low computing accuracy. To tackle this challenge, we initially develop an analytical framework for sub-array partitioning. This framework divides the large-scale RIS array into multiple sub-arrays, effectively reducing modeling complexity while maintaining acceptable accuracy. Then, we develop a beam domain channel model based on the proposed sub-array partition framework for large-scale RIS-enabled UAV-to-vehicle communication systems, which can be used to efficiently capture the sparse features in RIS-enabled UAV-to-vehicle channels in both near-field and far-field ranges. Furthermore, some important propagation characteristics of the proposed channel model, including the spatial cross-correlation functions (CCFs), temporal auto-correlation functions (ACFs), frequency correlation functions (CFs), and channel capacities with respect to the different physical features of the RIS and non-stationary properties of the channel model are derived and analyzed. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate that the proposed framework is helpful to achieve a good tradeoff between model complexity and accuracy for investigating the channel propagation characteristics, and therefore providing highly-efficient communications in RIS-enabled UAV-to-vehicle wireless networks.

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Rongen Dong, Feng Shu

With the aim of boosting the security of the conventional directional modulation (DM) network, a secure DM network assisted by intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is investigated in this paper. To maximize the security rate (SR), we jointly optimize the power allocation (PA) factor, confidential message (CM) beamforming, artificial noise (AN) beamforming, and IRS reflected beamforming. To tackle the formulated problem, a maximizing SR with high-performance (Max-SR-HP) scheme is proposed, where the PA factor, CM beamforming, AN beamforming, and IRS phase shift matrix are derived by the derivative operation, generalized Rayleigh-Rize, generalized power iteration, and semidefinite relaxation criteria, respectively. Given that the high complexity of the above scheme, a maximizing SR with low-complexity (Max-SR-LC) scheme is proposed, which employs the generalized leakage and successive convex approximation algorithms to derive the variables. Simulation results show that both the proposed schemes can significantly boost the SR performance, and are better than the equal PA, no IRS and random phase shift IRS schemes.

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Yan Wang, Ruiqi Liu, Tong Gao, Feng Shu, Xuemei Lei, Guan Gui, Jiangzhou Wang

In this paper, authentication for mobile radio frequency identification (RFID) systems with low-cost tags is studied. Firstly, a diagonal block key matrix (DBKM) encryption algorithm is proposed, which effectively expands the feasible domain of the key space. Subsequently, in order to enhance the security, a self updating encryption order (SUEO) algorithm is conceived. To further weaken the correlation between plaintext and ciphertext, a self updating modulus (SUM) algorithm is constructed. Based on the above three algorithms, a new joint DBKM-SUEO-SUM matrix encryption algorithm is established, which intends to enhance security without the need of additional storage for extra key matrices. Making full use of the advantages of the proposed joint algorithm, a two-way RFID authentication protocol named DBKM-SUEO-SUM-RFID is proposed for mobile RFID systems. In addition, the Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic and security analysis indicate that the newly proposed DBKM-SUEO-SUM-RFID protocol can effectively resist various typical attacks, such as replay attacks and de-synchronization. Finally, numerical results demonstrate that the DBKM-SUEO-SUM algorithm can save at least 90.46\% of tag storage compared to traditional algorithms, and thus, is friendly to be employed with low-cost RFID tags.

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Yifan Li, Feng Shu, Jun Zou, Wei Gao, Yaoliang Song, Jiangzhou Wang

To satisfy the high-resolution requirements of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation, conventional deep neural network (DNN)-based methods using grid idea need to significantly increase the number of output classifications and also produce a huge high model complexity. To address this problem, a multi-level tree-based DNN model (TDNN) is proposed as an alternative, where each level takes small-scale multi-layer neural networks (MLNNs) as nodes to divide the target angular interval into multiple sub-intervals, and each output class is associated to a MLNN at the next level. Then the number of MLNNs is gradually increasing from the first level to the last level, and so increasing the depth of tree will dramatically raise the number of output classes to improve the estimation accuracy. More importantly, this network is extended to make a multi-emitter DOA estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed TDNN performs much better than conventional DNN and root-MUSIC at extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and can achieve Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). Additionally, in the multi-emitter scenario, the proposed Q-TDNN has also made a substantial performance enhancement over DNN and Root-MUSIC, and this gain grows as the number of emitters increases.

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Xin Cheng, Weiqiang Zhu, Feng Shu, Jiangzhou Wang

Deploying multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to locate a signal-emitting source covers a wide range of military and civilian applications like rescue and target tracking. It is well known that the UAVs-source (sensors-target) geometry, namely geometric configuration, significantly affects the final localization accuracy. This paper focuses on the geometric configuration optimization for received signal strength difference (RSSD)-based passive source localization by drone swarm. Different from prior works, this paper considers a general measuring condition where the spread angle of drone swarm centered on the source is constrained. Subject to this constraint, a geometric configuration optimization problem with the aim of maximizing the determinant of Fisher information matrix (FIM) is formulated. After transforming this problem using matrix theory, an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based optimization framework is proposed. To solve the subproblems in this framework, two global optimal solutions based on the Von Neumann matrix trace inequality theorem and majorize-minimize (MM) algorithm are proposed respectively. Finally, the effectiveness as well as the practicality of the proposed ADMM-based optimization algorithm are demonstrated by extensive simulations.

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Xuehui Wang, Yifan Zhao, Feng Shu, Yan Wang

In this paper, a hybrid IRS-aided amplify-and-forward (AF) relay wireless network is put forward, where the hybrid IRS is made up of passive and active elements. For maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a low-complexity method based on successive convex approximation and fractional programming (LC-SCA-FP) is proposed to jointly optimize the beamforming matrix at AF relay and the reflecting coefficient matrices at IRS. Simulation results verify that the rate achieved by the proposed LC-SCA-FP method surpass those of the benchmark schemes, namely the passive IRS-aided AF relay and only AF relay network.

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Yifan Zhao, Xuehui Wang, Yan Wang, Xianpeng Wang, Zhilin Chen, Feng Shu, Chunhua Pan, Jiangzhou Wang

Due to its intrinsic ability to combat the double fading effect, the active intelligent reflective surface (IRS) becomes popular. The main feature of active IRS must be supplied by power, and the problem of how to allocate the total power between base station (BS) and IRS to fully explore the rate gain achieved by power allocation (PA) to remove the rate gap between existing PA strategies and optimal exhaustive search (ES) arises naturally. First, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) expression is derived to be a function of PA factor beta [0, 1]. Then, to improve the rate performance of the conventional gradient ascent (GA), an equal-spacing-multiple-point-initialization GA (ESMPI-GA) method is proposed. Due to its slow linear convergence from iterative GA, the proposed ESMPI-GA is high-complexity. Eventually, to reduce this high complexity, a low-complexity closed-form PA method with third-order Taylor expansion (TTE) centered at point beta0 = 0.5 is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed ESMPI-GA harvests about 0.5 bit gain over conventional GA and 1.2 and 0.8 bits gain over existing methods like equal PA and Taylor polynomial approximation (TPA) for small-scale IRS, and the proposed TTE performs much better than TPA and fixed PA strategies using an extremely low complexity.

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Qiankun Cheng, Rongen Dong, Wenlong Cai, Ruiqi Liu, Feng Shu, Jiangzhou Wang

Due to its ability of overcoming the impact of double-fading effect, active intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) has attracted a lot of attention. Unlike passive IRS, active IRS should be supplied by power, thus adjusting power between base station (BS) and IRS having a direct impact on the system rate performance. In this paper, the active IRS-aided network under a total power constraint is modeled with an ability of adjusting power between BS and IRS. Given the transmit beamforming at BS and reflecting beamforming at IRS, the SNR expression is derived to be a function of power allocation (PA) factor, and the optimization of maximizing the SNR is given. Subsequently, two high-performance PA strategies, enhanced multiple random initialization Newton's (EMRIN) and Taylor polynomial approximation (TPA), are proposed. The former is to improve the rate performance of classic Netwon's method to avoid involving a local optimal point by using multiple random initializations. To reduce its high computational complexity, the latter provides a closed-form solution by making use of the first-order Taylor polynomial approximation to the original SNR function. Actually, using TPA, the original optimization problem is transformed into a problem of finding a root for a third-order polynomial.Simulation results are as follows: the first-order TPA of SNR fit its exact expression well, the proposed two PA methods performs much better than fixed PA in accordance with rate, and appoaches exhaustive search as the number of IRS reflecting elements goes to large-scale.

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Xun Chen, Fujun Gao, Min Qiu, Jia Zhang, Feng Shu, Shihao Yan

In this work, we consider a covert communication scenario, where a transmitter Alice communicates to a receiver Bob with the aid of a probabilistic and uninformed jammer against an adversary warden's detection. The transmission status and power of the jammer are random and follow some priori probabilities. We first analyze the warden's detection performance as a function of the jammer's transmission probability, transmit power distribution, and Alice's transmit power. We then maximize the covert throughput from Alice to Bob subject to a covertness constraint, by designing the covert communication strategies from three different perspectives: Alice's perspective, the jammer's perspective, and the global perspective. Our analysis reveals that the minimum jamming power should not always be zero in the probabilistic jamming strategy, which is different from that in the continuous jamming strategy presented in the literature. In addition, we prove that the minimum jamming power should be the same as Alice's covert transmit power, depending on the covertness and average jamming power constraints. Furthermore, our results show that the probabilistic jamming can outperform the continuous jamming in terms of achieving a higher covert throughput under the same covertness and average jamming power constraints.

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Feng Shu, Yiwen Chen

Massive multiple input multiple output(MIMO)-based fully-digital receive antenna arrays eventuate a huge amount of circuit costs and complexity to direction of arrival(DOA) estimation, which is hard to satisfy the needs of high precision and low cost in future green wireless communication. To address this challenge, a novel heterogeneous hybrid MIMO receiver is proposed in this paper and a high performance DOA estimator called heterogeneous cross-minimum distance (HCMD) is developed based on the structure. The antenna arrays are first divided into multiple groups, and each group adopts a different hybrid structure. The virtual antenna arrays of these groups are then used for DOA estimation to generate multiple candidate angle sets, where each set contains a unique true solution and multiple pseudo-solutions. Finally, the cross-distance minimization method is applied to the multiple candidate angle sets to select the corresponding true solution for each group, and the final DOA estimation is given by combining the multiple true solutions. Simulation results show that as the number of antennas tends to large-scale, the proposed method can rapidly find the true solution for each group and achieve excellent estimation performance.

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