In 6th-Generation (6G) mobile networks, Intelligent Reflective Surfaces (IRSs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have emerged as promising technologies to address the coverage difficulties and resource constraints faced by terrestrial networks. UAVs, with their mobility and low costs, offer diverse connectivity options for mobile users and a novel deployment paradigm for 6G networks. However, the limited battery capacity of UAVs, dynamic and unpredictable channel environments, and communication resource constraints result in poor performance of traditional UAV-based networks. IRSs can not only reconstruct the wireless environment in a unique way, but also achieve wireless network relay in a cost-effective manner. Hence, it receives significant attention as a promising solution to solve the above challenges. In this article, we conduct a comprehensive survey on IRS-assisted UAV communications for 6G networks. First, primary issues, key technologies, and application scenarios of IRS-assisted UAV communications for 6G networks are introduced. Then, we put forward specific solutions to the issues of IRS-assisted UAV communications. Finally, we discuss some open issues and future research directions to guide researchers in related fields.
The convergence of Edge Computing (EC) and Machine Learning (ML), known as Edge Machine Learning (EML), has become a highly regarded research area by utilizing distributed network resources to perform joint training and inference in a cooperative manner. However, EML faces various challenges due to resource constraints, heterogeneous network environments, and diverse service requirements of different applications, which together affect the trustworthiness of EML in the eyes of its stakeholders. This survey provides a comprehensive summary of definitions, attributes, frameworks, techniques, and solutions for trustworthy EML. Specifically, we first emphasize the importance of trustworthy EML within the context of Sixth-Generation (6G) networks. We then discuss the necessity of trustworthiness from the perspective of challenges encountered during deployment and real-world application scenarios. Subsequently, we provide a preliminary definition of trustworthy EML and explore its key attributes. Following this, we introduce fundamental frameworks and enabling technologies for trustworthy EML systems, and provide an in-depth literature review of the latest solutions to enhance trustworthiness of EML. Finally, we discuss corresponding research challenges and open issues.
The main idea of multimodal recommendation is the rational utilization of the item's multimodal information to improve the recommendation performance. Previous works directly integrate item multimodal features with item ID embeddings, ignoring the inherent semantic relations contained in the multimodal features. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective aTtention-guided Multi-step FUsion Network for multimodal recommendation, named TMFUN. Specifically, our model first constructs modality feature graph and item feature graph to model the latent item-item semantic structures. Then, we use the attention module to identify inherent connections between user-item interaction data and multimodal data, evaluate the impact of multimodal data on different interactions, and achieve early-step fusion of item features. Furthermore, our model optimizes item representation through the attention-guided multi-step fusion strategy and contrastive learning to improve recommendation performance. The extensive experiments on three real-world datasets show that our model has superior performance compared to the state-of-the-art models.
A wireless federated learning system is investigated by allowing a server and workers to exchange uncoded information via orthogonal wireless channels. Since the workers frequently upload local gradients to the server via bandwidth-limited channels, the uplink transmission from the workers to the server becomes a communication bottleneck. Therefore, a one-shot distributed principle component analysis (PCA) is leveraged to reduce the dimension of uploaded gradients such that the communication bottleneck is relieved. A PCA-based wireless federated learning (PCA-WFL) algorithm and its accelerated version (i.e., PCA-AWFL) are proposed based on the low-dimensional gradients and the Nesterov's momentum. For the non-convex loss functions, a finite-time analysis is performed to quantify the impacts of system hyper-parameters on the convergence of the PCA-WFL and PCA-AWFL algorithms. The PCA-AWFL algorithm is theoretically certified to converge faster than the PCA-WFL algorithm. Besides, the convergence rates of PCA-WFL and PCA-AWFL algorithms quantitatively reveal the linear speedup with respect to the number of workers over the vanilla gradient descent algorithm. Numerical results are used to demonstrate the improved convergence rates of the proposed PCA-WFL and PCA-AWFL algorithms over the benchmarks.