Speech enhancement aims to improve the quality of speech signals in terms of quality and intelligibility, and speech editing refers to the process of editing the speech according to specific user needs. In this paper, we propose a Unified Speech Enhancement and Editing (uSee) model with conditional diffusion models to handle various tasks at the same time in a generative manner. Specifically, by providing multiple types of conditions including self-supervised learning embeddings and proper text prompts to the score-based diffusion model, we can enable controllable generation of the unified speech enhancement and editing model to perform corresponding actions on the source speech. Our experiments show that our proposed uSee model can achieve superior performance in both speech denoising and dereverberation compared to other related generative speech enhancement models, and can perform speech editing given desired environmental sound text description, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), and room impulse responses (RIR). Demos of the generated speech are available at https://muqiaoy.github.io/usee.
Enhancing speech signal quality in adverse acoustic environments is a persistent challenge in speech processing. Existing deep learning based enhancement methods often struggle to effectively remove background noise and reverberation in real-world scenarios, hampering listening experiences. To address these challenges, we propose a novel approach that uses pre-trained generative methods to resynthesize clean, anechoic speech from degraded inputs. This study leverages pre-trained vocoder or codec models to synthesize high-quality speech while enhancing robustness in challenging scenarios. Generative methods effectively handle information loss in speech signals, resulting in regenerated speech that has improved fidelity and reduced artifacts. By harnessing the capabilities of pre-trained models, we achieve faithful reproduction of the original speech in adverse conditions. Experimental evaluations on both simulated datasets and realistic samples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our proposed methods. Especially by leveraging codec, we achieve superior subjective scores for both simulated and realistic recordings. The generated speech exhibits enhanced audio quality, reduced background noise, and reverberation. Our findings highlight the potential of pre-trained generative techniques in speech processing, particularly in scenarios where traditional methods falter. Demos are available at https://whmrtm.github.io/SoundResynthesis.
Various applications of voice synthesis have been developed independently despite the fact that they generate "voice" as output in common. In addition, the majority of voice synthesis models currently rely on annotated audio data, but it is crucial to scale them to self-supervised datasets in order to effectively capture the wide range of acoustic variations present in human voice, including speaker identity, emotion, and prosody. In this work, we propose Make-A-Voice, a unified framework for synthesizing and manipulating voice signals from discrete representations. Make-A-Voice leverages a "coarse-to-fine" approach to model the human voice, which involves three stages: 1) semantic stage: model high-level transformation between linguistic content and self-supervised semantic tokens, 2) acoustic stage: introduce varying control signals as acoustic conditions for semantic-to-acoustic modeling, and 3) generation stage: synthesize high-fidelity waveforms from acoustic tokens. Make-A-Voice offers notable benefits as a unified voice synthesis framework: 1) Data scalability: the major backbone (i.e., acoustic and generation stage) does not require any annotations, and thus the training data could be scaled up. 2) Controllability and conditioning flexibility: we investigate different conditioning mechanisms and effectively handle three voice synthesis applications, including text-to-speech (TTS), voice conversion (VC), and singing voice synthesis (SVS) by re-synthesizing the discrete voice representations with prompt guidance. Experimental results demonstrate that Make-A-Voice exhibits superior audio quality and style similarity compared with competitive baseline models. Audio samples are available at https://Make-A-Voice.github.io
Self-supervised learning (SSL) has drawn an increased attention in the field of speech processing. Recent studies have demonstrated that contrastive learning is able to learn discriminative speaker embeddings in a self-supervised manner. However, base contrastive self-supervised learning (CSSL) assumes that the pairs generated from a view of anchor instance and any view of other instances are all negative, which introduces many false negative pairs in constructing the loss function. The problem is referred as $class$-$collision$, which remains as one major issue that impedes the CSSL based speaker verification (SV) systems from achieving better performances. In the meanwhile, studies reveal that negative sample free SSL frameworks perform well in learning speaker or image representations. In this study, we investigate SSL techniques that lead to an improved SV performance. We first analyse the impact of false negative pairs in the CSSL systems. Then, a multi-stage Class-Collision Correction (C3) method is proposed, which leads to the state-of-the-art CSSL based speaker embedding system. On the basis of the pretrained CSSL model, we further propose to employ a negative sample free SSL objective (i.e., DINO) to fine-tune the speaker embedding network. The resulting speaker embedding system (C3-DINO) achieves 2.5% EER with a simple Cosine Distance Scoring method on Voxceleb1 test set, which outperforms the previous SOTA SSL system (4.86%) by a significant +45% relative improvement. With speaker clustering and pseudo labeling on Voxceleb2 training set, a LDA/CDS back-end applying on the C3-DINO speaker embeddings is able to further push the EER to 2.2%. Comprehensive experimental investigations of the Voxceleb benchmarks and our internal dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods, and the performance gap between the SSL SV and the supervised counterpart narrows further.
* Accepted to IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised text-to-speech (UTTS) framework which does not require text-audio pairs for the TTS acoustic modeling (AM). UTTS is a multi-speaker speech synthesizer developed from the perspective of disentangled speech representation learning. The framework offers a flexible choice of a speaker's duration model, timbre feature (identity) and content for TTS inference. We leverage recent advancements in self-supervised speech representation learning as well as speech synthesis front-end techniques for the system development. Specifically, we utilize a lexicon to map input text to the phoneme sequence, which is expanded to the frame-level forced alignment (FA) with a speaker-dependent duration model. Then, we develop an alignment mapping module that converts the FA to the unsupervised alignment (UA). Finally, a Conditional Disentangled Sequential Variational Auto-encoder (C-DSVAE), serving as the self-supervised TTS AM, takes the predicted UA and a target speaker embedding to generate the mel spectrogram, which is ultimately converted to waveform with a neural vocoder. We show how our method enables speech synthesis without using a paired TTS corpus. Experiments demonstrate that UTTS can synthesize speech of high naturalness and intelligibility measured by human and objective evaluations.
Despite the rapid progress in automatic speech recognition (ASR) research, recognizing multilingual speech using a unified ASR system remains highly challenging. Previous works on multilingual speech recognition mainly focus on two directions: recognizing multiple monolingual speech or recognizing code-switched speech that uses different languages interchangeably within a single utterance. However, a pragmatic multilingual recognizer is expected to be compatible with both directions. In this work, a novel language-aware encoder (LAE) architecture is proposed to handle both situations by disentangling language-specific information and generating frame-level language-aware representations during encoding. In the LAE, the primary encoding is implemented by the shared block while the language-specific blocks are used to extract specific representations for each language. To learn language-specific information discriminatively, a language-aware training method is proposed to optimize the language-specific blocks in LAE. Experiments conducted on Mandarin-English code-switched speech suggest that the proposed LAE is capable of discriminating different languages in frame-level and shows superior performance on both monolingual and multilingual ASR tasks. With either a real-recorded or simulated code-switched dataset, the proposed LAE achieves statistically significant improvements on both CTC and neural transducer systems. Code is released
Acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) plays an important role in the full-duplex speech communication as well as the front-end speech enhancement for recognition in the conditions when the loudspeaker plays back. In this paper, we present an all-deep-learning framework that implicitly estimates the second order statistics of echo/noise and target speech, and jointly solves echo and noise suppression through an attention based recurrent neural network. The proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art joint echo cancellation and speech enhancement method F-T-LSTM in terms of objective speech quality metrics, speech recognition accuracy and model complexity. We show that this model can work with speaker embedding for better target speech enhancement and furthermore develop a branch for automatic gain control (AGC) task to form an all-in-one front-end speech enhancement system.
Disentangling content and speaking style information is essential for zero-shot non-parallel voice conversion (VC). Our previous study investigated a novel framework with disentangled sequential variational autoencoder (DSVAE) as the backbone for information decomposition. We have demonstrated that simultaneous disentangling content embedding and speaker embedding from one utterance is feasible for zero-shot VC. In this study, we continue the direction by raising one concern about the prior distribution of content branch in the DSVAE baseline. We find the random initialized prior distribution will force the content embedding to reduce the phonetic-structure information during the learning process, which is not a desired property. Here, we seek to achieve a better content embedding with more phonetic information preserved. We propose conditional DSVAE, a new model that enables content bias as a condition to the prior modeling and reshapes the content embedding sampled from the posterior distribution. In our experiment on the VCTK dataset, we demonstrate that content embeddings derived from the conditional DSVAE overcome the randomness and achieve a much better phoneme classification accuracy, a stabilized vocalization and a better zero-shot VC performance compared with the competitive DSVAE baseline.
In this paper, we present a novel framework that jointly performs speaker diarization, speech separation, and speaker counting. Our proposed method combines end-to-end speaker diarization and speech separation methods, namely, End-to-End Neural Speaker Diarization with Encoder-Decoder-based Attractor calculation (EEND-EDA) and the Convolutional Time-domain Audio Separation Network (ConvTasNet) as multi-tasking joint model. We also propose the multiple 1x1 convolutional layer architecture for estimating the separation masks corresponding to the number of speakers, and a post-processing technique for refining the separated speech signal with speech activity. Experiments using LibriMix dataset show that our proposed method outperforms the baselines in terms of diarization and separation performance for both fixed and flexible numbers of speakers, as well as speaker counting performance for flexible numbers of speakers. All materials will be open-sourced and reproducible in ESPnet toolkit.
Traditional studies on voice conversion (VC) have made progress with parallel training data and known speakers. Good voice conversion quality is obtained by exploring better alignment modules or expressive mapping functions. In this study, we investigate zero-shot VC from a novel perspective of self-supervised disentangled speech representation learning. Specifically, we achieve the disentanglement by balancing the information flow between global speaker representation and time-varying content representation in a sequential variational autoencoder (VAE). A zero-shot voice conversion is performed by feeding an arbitrary speaker embedding and content embeddings to the VAE decoder. Besides that, an on-the-fly data augmentation training strategy is applied to make the learned representation noise invariant. On TIMIT and VCTK datasets, we achieve state-of-the-art performance on both objective evaluation, i.e., speaker verification (SV) on speaker embedding and content embedding, and subjective evaluation, i.e., voice naturalness and similarity, and remains to be robust even with noisy source/target utterances.