Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) can capture non-Euclidean spatial dependence between different brain regions, and the graph pooling operator in GCNs is key to enhancing the representation learning capability and acquiring abnormal brain maps. However, the majority of existing research designs graph pooling operators only from the perspective of nodes while disregarding the original edge features, in a way that not only confines graph pooling application scenarios, but also diminishes its ability to capture critical substructures. In this study, a clustering graph pooling method that first supports multidimensional edge features, called Edge-aware hard clustering graph pooling (EHCPool), is developed. EHCPool proposes the first 'Edge-to-node' score evaluation criterion based on edge features to assess node feature significance. To more effectively capture the critical subgraphs, a novel Iteration n-top strategy is further designed to adaptively learn sparse hard clustering assignments for graphs. Subsequently, an innovative N-E Aggregation strategy is presented to aggregate node and edge feature information in each independent subgraph. The proposed model was evaluated on multi-site brain imaging public datasets and yielded state-of-the-art performance. We believe this method is the first deep learning tool with the potential to probe different types of abnormal functional brain networks from data-driven perspective. Core code is at: https://github.com/swfen/EHCPool.
Quantitative organ assessment is an essential step in automated abdominal disease diagnosis and treatment planning. Artificial intelligence (AI) has shown great potential to automatize this process. However, most existing AI algorithms rely on many expert annotations and lack a comprehensive evaluation of accuracy and efficiency in real-world multinational settings. To overcome these limitations, we organized the FLARE 2022 Challenge, the largest abdominal organ analysis challenge to date, to benchmark fast, low-resource, accurate, annotation-efficient, and generalized AI algorithms. We constructed an intercontinental and multinational dataset from more than 50 medical groups, including Computed Tomography (CT) scans with different races, diseases, phases, and manufacturers. We independently validated that a set of AI algorithms achieved a median Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 90.0\% by using 50 labeled scans and 2000 unlabeled scans, which can significantly reduce annotation requirements. The best-performing algorithms successfully generalized to holdout external validation sets, achieving a median DSC of 89.5\%, 90.9\%, and 88.3\% on North American, European, and Asian cohorts, respectively. They also enabled automatic extraction of key organ biology features, which was labor-intensive with traditional manual measurements. This opens the potential to use unlabeled data to boost performance and alleviate annotation shortages for modern AI models.
Multi-stage ranking pipelines have become widely used strategies in modern recommender systems, where the final stage aims to return a ranked list of items that balances a number of requirements such as user preference, diversity, novelty etc. Linear scalarization is arguably the most widely used technique to merge multiple requirements into one optimization objective, by summing up the requirements with certain preference weights. Existing final-stage ranking methods often adopt a static model where the preference weights are determined during offline training and kept unchanged during online serving. Whenever a modification of the preference weights is needed, the model has to be re-trained, which is time and resources inefficient. Meanwhile, the most appropriate weights may vary greatly for different groups of targeting users or at different time periods (e.g., during holiday promotions). In this paper, we propose a framework called controllable multi-objective re-ranking (CMR) which incorporates a hypernetwork to generate parameters for a re-ranking model according to different preference weights. In this way, CMR is enabled to adapt the preference weights according to the environment changes in an online manner, without retraining the models. Moreover, we classify practical business-oriented tasks into four main categories and seamlessly incorporate them in a new proposed re-ranking model based on an Actor-Evaluator framework, which serves as a reliable real-world testbed for CMR. Offline experiments based on the dataset collected from Taobao App showed that CMR improved several popular re-ranking models by using them as underlying models. Online A/B tests also demonstrated the effectiveness and trustworthiness of CMR.
The available evidence suggests that dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) can capture time-varying abnormalities in brain activity in resting-state cerebral functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data and has a natural advantage in uncovering mechanisms of abnormal brain activity in schizophrenia(SZ) patients. Hence, an advanced dynamic brain network analysis model called the temporal brain category graph convolutional network (Temporal-BCGCN) was employed. Firstly, a unique dynamic brain network analysis module, DSF-BrainNet, was designed to construct dynamic synchronization features. Subsequently, a revolutionary graph convolution method, TemporalConv, was proposed, based on the synchronous temporal properties of feature. Finally, the first modular abnormal hemispherical lateralization test tool in deep learning based on rs-fMRI data, named CategoryPool, was proposed. This study was validated on COBRE and UCLA datasets and achieved 83.62% and 89.71% average accuracies, respectively, outperforming the baseline model and other state-of-the-art methods. The ablation results also demonstrate the advantages of TemporalConv over the traditional edge feature graph convolution approach and the improvement of CategoryPool over the classical graph pooling approach. Interestingly, this study showed that the lower order perceptual system and higher order network regions in the left hemisphere are more severely dysfunctional than in the right hemisphere in SZ and reaffirms the importance of the left medial superior frontal gyrus in SZ. Our core code is available at: https://github.com/swfen/Temporal-BCGCN.
With the unprecedented developments in deep learning, automatic segmentation of main abdominal organs (i.e., liver, kidney, and spleen) seems to be a solved problem as the state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods have achieved comparable results with inter-observer variability on existing benchmark datasets. However, most of the existing abdominal organ segmentation benchmark datasets only contain single-center, single-phase, single-vendor, or single-disease cases, thus, it is unclear whether the excellent performance can generalize on more diverse datasets. In this paper, we present a large and diverse abdominal CT organ segmentation dataset, termed as AbdomenCT-1K, with more than 1000 (1K) CT scans from 11 countries, including multi-center, multi-phase, multi-vendor, and multi-disease cases. Furthermore, we conduct a large-scale study for liver, kidney, spleen, and pancreas segmentation, as well as reveal the unsolved segmentation problems of the SOTA method, such as the limited generalization ability on distinct medical centers, phases, and unseen diseases. To advance the unsolved problems, we build four organ segmentation benchmarks for fully supervised, semi-supervised, weakly supervised, and continual learning, which are currently challenging and active research topics. Accordingly, we develop a simple and effective method for each benchmark, which can be used as out-of-the-box methods and strong baselines. We believe the introduction of the AbdomenCT-1K dataset will promote future in-depth research towards clinical applicable abdominal organ segmentation methods. Moreover, the datasets, codes, and trained models of baseline methods will be publicly available at https://github.com/JunMa11/AbdomenCT-1K.
Deep learning object detection algorithm has been widely used in medical image analysis. Currently all the object detection tasks are based on the data annotated with object classes and their bounding boxes. On the other hand, medical images such as mammography usually contain normal regions or objects that are similar to the lesion region, and may be misclassified in the testing stage if they are not taken care of. In this paper, we address such problem by introducing a novel top likelihood loss together with a new sampling procedure to select and train the suspected target regions, as well as proposing a similarity loss to further identify suspected targets from targets. Mean average precision (mAP) according to the predicted targets and specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, AUC values according to classification of patients are adopted for performance comparisons. We firstly test our proposed method on a private dense mammogram dataset. Results show that our proposed method greatly reduce the false positive rate and the specificity is increased by 0.25 on detecting mass type cancer. It is worth mention that dense breast typically has a higher risk for developing breast cancers and also are harder for cancer detection in diagnosis, and our method outperforms a reported result from performance of radiologists. Our method is also validated on the public Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) dataset, brings significant improvement on mass type cancer detection and outperforms the most state-of-the-art work.